Chapter 7 Textbook Notes

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19 Jun 2011
Chapter 7
Motivation a term used to denote the forces and factors, usually viewed as
residing w/in the person, that energize and direct behaviour Common
motivational ideas in personality psych include wants, desires, needs, goals,
strivings, projects, and tasks
The Psychoanalytic View
Sigmund Freud most influential: psychoanalysis focus on the unconscious
det6terminants of behaviour, intrapsychic conflict, and instinctual drives
concerning sexuality and aggression. Also denotes the process of engaging in
psychotherapy from a psychoanalytic standpoint
oForces over which we have little control determine all human
behaviour and experience, someone making us move (pawns in
chess game)
oThese forces exist w/in us, traced back to primitive
drives/instincts, sexuality and aggression
oCauses anxiety, want too much what we can't have
The unconscious
oWe dont even know what those forces that determine our
behaviour and those conflicts that precipitate our anxiety are,
no control over life
Two sets of instincts or drives
1.Sexuality and all other life instincts instincts serving sexual
reproduction and survival (sometimes called Eros)
2.Aggression and all other death instincts instinctual drives assumed
to motivate the person toward behaviour and experience promoting
ones own death and destruction or aggression toward others
(sometimes called Thanatos”)
The Unconscious
Unconscious the state of being outside of awareness
Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietzsche emphasized aspects of
human functioning that are outside of consciousness, typically
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emotional and irrational urges that are antagonistic to conscious
William Wordsworth and John Keats, generally placed the persons
heroic and creative powers
Hypnotism was used to gain access to the unconscious mind as early as
Baumesiter and Gay argue that middle-class adults in 19th-century
Europe accepted the general idea of an inner world unknowable to the
conscious self
oBaumesiter even asserts that Victorian men and woman were
preoccupied with the involuntary revelation of this inner self to
While you might be able to attain conscious insight into
the deep secrets of your own mind, the Victorians believed
there was always the danger of unintentionally revealing
the nature of your own unconscious to others, who as
objective outside observers might even come to know you
better than you know yourself
Topographical model Freuds model of the mind, which
distinguishes among the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious
regions. The conscious corresponds to everyday awareness; the
preconscious contains the contents of ordinary memory, to which
awareness may be directed at any time; and the unconscious contains
wishes, feelings, memories, and so on that have been repressed b/c they
threaten the wellbeing of the conscious self
oConscious what you are currently aware of
oPreconscious not currently aware but could readily entre
awareness should you decide to retrieve the material, storehouse
of important and trivial info
oUnconscious - cant be readily retrieved, contains elements of
experience that have been actively repressed, repository for
ideas, images, urges, and feelings that are associated with
conflict, pain, fear, guilt, and so on
Repression and Repressors
People sometimes attain good insights and arrive at satisfying conclusions
when they put conscious thought aside and go with their gut intuitions
Repression - Freuds concept for the process of casting thoughts, memories,
feelings, and conflicts out of consciousness, rendering them unremembered
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Stored away b/c they threaten a persons well-being
Repressors Wienberger, Schwartz, Davidson, persons who experience little
anxiety on a conscious level and who adopt a highly defensive approach to life
Research suggests that repressors have less access than do other
people to negative emotional memories about the self
Repression may also involve a more general failure to retrieve
emotional memories of various kinds (fig. 7.1)
Report a greater number of memories involving emotional experiences
of other people but when it comes to recalling events in which the
strong emotions experienced are their own, and especially when those
emotions entail painful sates of fear and self-consciousness, repressors
seem to have difficulty summoning such memories into awareness
Hansen and Hansen the architecture of repression, the mechanisms
whereby emotionally tagged memories, especially unpleasant memories, are
left inaccessible
Repressors have an associative network for negative emotional
experoences by substantially less complex and more discrete than that
found for negative memories experienced by other people
Negative recollections have a characteristically simple structure, and these
memories are split off from other memories, isolated outside the main
network of interrelated autobiographical recollections
Repressors and nonrepressors organize their episodic memories in different
Repressors simplify negative memories to emphasize a single dominant
feeling, as a way of keeping these memories from connecting in their
minds to other autobiographical memories containing other feelings
Nonrepressors tend to describe their negative memories in more
complex terms, emphasizing a number of different emotional states in
the same memory and integrating the negative memory with the main
lines of their autobiographical self
In periods of extreme stress repressive coping styles can lead to resilience
the ability to overcome difficult obstacles in like and thrive amidst adversity
(study page 265)
The Egos Defenses
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