chapter 8 Textbook Notes

16 views8 pages
Published on 19 Jun 2011
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB30H3
Chapter 8
Social-cognitive approaches to personality human beings are complex
information-processing systems that operate in social environments
The Psychology of Personal Constructs
George Kellys Theory
(Page 304!! COROLLARY)
A person is motivated to predict or anticipate what will happen to him or her
Each of us classifies our world by developing personal constructs
characteristic ways of how things are alike and diff from one another (more
like hypotheses to be tested than like assumed facts)
Every construct is bipolar (dichotomy corollary)
People best understood in their own construct systems
Each person develops their own construct system that contains a
number of constructs organized into a hierarchy (organizational
corollary)
Every persons construct system is unique (individuality corollary)
To know another persons construct system is to see the world through
their eyes (sociality corollary)
W/in a persons construct system, particular constructs differ from one
another w/ respect to the range of convenience the extent to which
a given personal constructs is likely to guide a persons interpretation
of events and the behaviour he or she is likely to show (range corollary)
Some constructs are highly permeable and others arent (modulation
corollary)
oPerson with an especially permeable construct system is likely to
be seen by others as very-opened minded
oComplete permeable isnt good, doesnt function well
When a persons constructs are mutually incompatible and
contradictory, then they are more likely to have a difficult time making
consistent sense of the world and anticipating events in an adaptive
way (fragmentation corollary)
Kelly views anxiety as the recognition that the events w/ which one is
confronted lie outside the range of convenience of ones construct system
www.notesolution.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Core role structure the construction a person has of who they are in relation
to significant people, such as parents. Guilt is the perception that one is no
longer living according to ones personal-construct system
Exploring Personal Constructs: The Rep Test
Role Construct Repertory Test (Rep Test) designed to explore personal
constructs in peoples lives
One version asks you to make a series of comparisons among those who
play important roles in your life
oCompile a Role Title list, similar and contrast
oEach of the parings represents a single construct
oPeople who use many different kinds of constructs are said to
manifest higher levels of cognitive complexity and tend to view
the world in high differentiated manner
oPeople who use few different kinds of constructs are viewed has
having a simpler, more global construct system
Cognitive Styles and Personality
Cognitive styles peoples characteristics and typically preferred modes of
processing information
Partly captures in Openness to Experience (O), people high in O tent to
process info in a more nuanced, differentiated, and abstract matter
while those low in O see fewer distinctions and adhere to concrete and
clearly defined categories
Field Independence Dependence
A general dimension of cognitive style ranging from highly analytical and
differentiated processing of information (field-independence) to highly
contextual and global processing (field-dependence)
Tilted chair/room Witkin
Field-dependent
oPeople who use room as the reference for their adjustment.
oPerception and judgment of perpendicularity depend on the
field, or environment
Field-independent
oPeople who bypass the field and make their perception and
judgment according to inner cues
www.notesolution.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Dimension has two poles
Highly field-independent people
oProcess info in an especially analytical and differentiated style
oThey rely on internal frames of reference that enable them to act
upon info in a highly independent fashion
Highly field-dependent people employ external frames of reference
available in the field
Base their perceptions on the external context w/in which they occurs
Embedded Figures Test person attempts to find forms hidden in an
embedding field
Field-independence
Associated w/ greater levels of perceptual and cognitive restructuring
Tend to reshape info from the environment according to internalized
plans, rules, and goals
View info in the nonsocial world in a highly differentiated manner
Predicts the ability to block our irrelevant info and focus attention on
central tasks and stimuli in complex learning situations
Cops of high FI make more accurate judgments under high-stimulation
crime conditions
Drawn to careers that require cognitive restructuring and objective
analysis of info, such as careers in science, math, management,
mechanics
Men score toward FI
Field-dependence
More global and intuitive in processing info about the world
Tend to engage in less cognitive restructuring, accepting info from the
environment in its own contextual terms, rather than employing
internal plans and guidelines for info
Tend to be more interested in humanitarian and social-welfare
professions, such as careers in the ministry, social work, teaching
young children, social sciences, selling and advertising
More senitive to social context
Pay closer attention to interpersonal cues ans social info
Spend more time lookint at people than inanimate objects and make
more eye contact when talking w/ others
Prefer being physically closer to others
Women score toward FD
www.notesolution.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Social-cognitive approaches to personality human beings are complex information-processing systems that operate in social environments. A person is motivated to predict or anticipate what will happen to him or her. Kelly views anxiety as the recognition that the events w/ which one is confronted lie outside the range of convenience of one"s construct system www. notesolution. com. Core role structure the construction a person has of who they are in relation to significant people, such as parents. Guilt is the perception that one is no longer living according to one"s personal-construct system. A general dimension of cognitive style ranging from highly analytical and differentiated processing of information (field-independence) to highly contextual and global processing (field-dependence) Tilted chair/room witkin: field-dependent, people who use room as the reference for their adjustment, perception and judgment of perpendicularity depend on the. Field, or environment: field-independent, people who bypass the field and make their perception and judgment according to inner cues www. notesolution. com.