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Chapter 1

PSYB30H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Social Learning Theory, Statistical Significance, Personality Disorder


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier
Chapter
1

Page:
of 6
PSYB30
Week 1 Readings
Chapter 1: Studying the Person
- Personality psychology: study of the whole person
- Psychology is about many things: perception and attention, cognition and memory, neurons and brain
circuitry, abnormal behaviour, social ehaiou, theap…et
- Goal of personality psychology: study individual differences in people (classify, categorize and
organize via biological and environmental forces/factors)
- Personality psychology: formalizes and systematizes general human effort to know persons
- What Do We Know When We Know a Person?
- Peoples taits hage oe the ouse of tie ad the iitial oseatio
- Sketching An Outline: Dispositional Traits
- Its diffiult to geealize ifoatio aout a peso he oue seen them just in one
setting
- Personality portrait: organizing what you might know about some general statements on a
pesos pattes of ehaiou, thought, ad feelig this ight e og though sie its ithout
confidence and an observation made on one occasion)
- Personality traits: general, internal, and comparative dispositions given to people in our initial
effort to place people into categories to show consistencies we perceive or expect in behaviour from
situation to situation over time (these traits guide your future interactions and expectations)
- Quantify differences in dispositional traits: self-report questionnaires
- People know their basic traits
- Personality psychologists use taits to deteie a pesos idiidualit
- Trait behaviours predict behaviour over time and for different situations
- Thees 5 categories of dispositional personality traits (implicated in social behaviour): (OCEAN)
- Openness to Experience (O)
- Conscientiousness (C)
- Extraversion (E)
- Agreeableness (A)
- Neuroticism (N)
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- Filling In The Details: Characteristic Adaptations
- Personality psychologists need to organize the details of dispositional traits (Step 1 for a full
psychological account of an individual human life)
- For example, might look at her need for power, her patte of iteests ad alues,…et (case
example of Amanda)
- After thinking of the general trait attributions/general dispositional outline we need to look at
personality contextualized in time, place, and/or role (Step 2- involves moving from personality
structure traits to personality dynamics, process and change; more fluid/malleable aspects of
personality)
- Specifics of personality include attributions dependent on time (Ex. child Baptist, but
now she might be atheist)
- *** These are known as characteristic adaptations (aspects of personality
contextualized in time, place, and/or role)***:
- Contextual facets of psychological individuality that speak to motivational,
cognitive, and developmental concerns in personality
- Ho a idiiduals pesoalit affects their ability to adapt to specific to a
time, place and/or role (Ex. what do people want, what do they do to seek what they desire and avoid
fear, how do they plan goals, how do they cope with social life challenges)
- 3 major categories (theories regarding characteristic adaptations) (HCD) [all
commonly address details that must be filled in after a general dispositional outline is created]
- Human Motivation: what people want or desire in life (human needs,
motives, goals and strivings)
- Ex. Freud believed humans motivated by sexuality and
aggression
- Ex. Carl Rogers believed humans are motivated by self-
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actualization and growth promotion
- Ex. Henry Murray made a list of 20 psychological needs or
motives
- Ex. David McClelland believed that humans are motivated by
achievement, power, and affiliation/intimacy
- Cognition and Personality: role of cognitive factors like values, beliefs,
expectancies, schemas, plans, personal constructs and cognitive styles for human individuality (personal
constructs, beliefs, values, schemas, and personal ideologies)
- Ex. George Kells personal construct theory is an example of
this
- Developmental: evolution of self and its relationships with others from
birth to old age (stage, pathways and developmental tasks in psychological individuality)
- E. Eik Eiksos theo of psychosocial development
- E. Jae Loeiges theo of ego deelopet
- Constructing A Story: Integrative Life Narratives
- “tep  &  eap: dispositioal taits + haateistis adaptatios; so hats et?
- What does the idiiduals overall life mean to them?; questions of identity (Step 3 for
a full psychological account of an individual human life)
- Identity: problem of unity and purpose in life; problem those encounter
moving from adolescence into young adulthood
- Beyond traits and adaptations = integrative framework or model of
their lives that give a sense of who they are as a whole
- People tend to integrate their lives in time (who they are today VS in
the past; what connects past, present and future)
- Modern identity challenges involve:
- Although you have different aspects, you are whole and
coherent
- Although you change things with time, the person from your
past will foreshadow the person you are now and will be in the future
- Involves ostutio of a life sto
- Life story: internalized and evolving narrative of the self that
integrates the reconstructed past, perceived present, and anticipated future in order to provide a life
with a sense of unity and purpose (how the individual fits into the world of adults using a
story/collective stories)
- The story changes as your identity changes; story continues to
be revised in adult years based on the individual and their changing social world
- People you eet…et a effet ou sto ad theis
- To know someone in their full individuality you have to
ko a pesos piate tholog aaties, haates, plots…et i thei life that the idiidual
thinks defines who they were and who they will be in the future)
- How do you interpret the stories people live by since it
depends on how people create their stories
- One theory: Pick and choose the prevalent narratives
in their own culture (choose stories that give their life unity and purpose)
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