PSYB30H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Big Five Personality Traits, Filial Piety, Trait Theory

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1 Mar 2013
Personality - Chapter 3
What's Missing From the Five Factors?
if we eliminate adjectives that descrive physical characteristics (short, beautiful, heavy),
demographics (employed, unemployed), unusual behaviors (evil, cruel) and other adjectives
not typically used to refer to personality, we have 10 possible candidates which are:
1. religious, devout, reverent
2. sly, deceptive, manipulative
3. honest, ethical, moral
4. sexy, sensual, erotic
5. thrifty, frugal, miserly
6. conservative, traditional, down-to-earth
7. masculine-feminine
8. egotistical, conceited, snobbish
9. humorous, witty, amusing
10. risk taking, thrill seeking
Is Intelligence a Personality Trait?
maybe not. first, early studies of the big five defined openness as consisting of
sophistication, artistic and intellectual interests and intelligence
other studies find that adjectives such as intelligent, knowledgeable and cultured load on a
conscientiousness factor
second, when people rate themselves or a close friend on "intelligence" they are generally
thinking of intelligent, rational and logical, clear-minded, mature - these are clearly different
from cognitive ability
when people rate themselves on intelligence adjectives such as hardworking, smart, and
knowledgeable, these end up loading on a conscientiousness factor and are not related to
measured intelligence
third, there is evidence that there are individual differences in how people perceive and
process information about the social world - some call this emotional intelligence
Is Religiosity a Personality Trait?
religion has not occupied a central role in the study of personality
spiritual transcendence - ability of individuals to "stand outside of their immediate sense of
time and place to view life from a larger, more objective perspective"
Piedmont designed the Spiritual Transcendence Scale (STS) - the scale has 3 facets:
1) Prayer Fulfillment, feelings of joy and contentedness from connection with transcendent;
2) Universality, seeing humanity as a single interrelated whole such that harming one harms
all 3) Connectedness, feeling belongingness to and social responsibility and gratitude for,
others across generations and across social groups
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Personality - Chapter 3
spiritual transcendence is a dimension of personality separate from the five factors of
scores on the STS predicted scores on measures of life outcomes beyond the five factors
spiritual transcendence and personality together predicted scores on locus of control beliefs
for health issues, vulnerability to stress, responsiveness to others, perceived social support,
prosocial behavior, positive sexual attitudes and prochoice and prolife attitudes toward
Is Sexuality a Personality Trait?
Schmitt and Buss found 7 sexuality factors referred to as the Sexy Seven:
sexual attractiveness (ex: sexy, stunning, attractive)
relationship exclusivity (ex: faithful, monogamous)
gender orientation (ex: feminine, womanly, manly, masculine)
sexual restraint (ex: virginal, celibate, chaste)
erotophilic disposition (ex: obscene, vulgar, lewd)
emotional investment (ex: loving, romantic, compassionate)
sexual orientation
Schmitt and Buss discovered that the sexuality factors overlap almost 80% with the five
factors, suggesting that they're not separate factors
because sexuality can be accounted for by a combination of factors and facets of the five
factors sexuality is not a separate personality trait
sexuality is along with musical tastes, room decorating and handshaking - another way in
which we express traits of OCEAN
Indigenous Personality: Unique Personality Traits?
because the 5 factor taxonomy relies on measures that were validated in mostly American
samples, even if they adequately explain personality in another culture, it is possible that we
may have missed personality traits that are unique to that culture
for the Chinese, filial piety is a desirable personality trait, and is much more than obeying
and honoring one's parents
amae characterizes relationships between people of lower and higher status, in addition to
the relationship between parents and children
these indigenous personality traits lie beyond the five factors
The Five Factors in Other Cultures
how do we go about applying the five-factor taxonomy to other cultures? there are 5 main
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Personality - Chapter 3
1. Questionnaire measures of the five-factor model reliably replicate across many
cultures and languages. the question based NEO-PI-R, when translated and then
carefully back-translated to ensure that the items are comparable - there is considerable
evidence that the FMM dimensions are in fact universally applicable - FMM has been
tested and validated in over 50 countries
2. Adjectival measures of the Big Five reveal variations of Neuroticism, Extraversion,
Agreeableness and Conscientiousness but not Openness in many different cultures
3. Openness varies across cultures. - this is because - for the lexical Big Five model
openness is defined as intellect and imagination but for the five-factor model this factor
is openness to experience. lexical models find openness to be language and culture
specific - because the openness factor does not consistently appear in other languages it
may be that this factor, though it exists cross-culturally, is defined differently in ways
unique to a specific culture
4. In some cultures more than five factors are needed to fully describe personality.
5. We need more research on indigenous personality to truly see which aspects of
personality are universal and which are unique to a culture.
Personality Traits Cross-Culturally: Personality Traits in China
Cheung developed the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory (CPAI) by using a sort of
lexical approach by identifying descriptions of Chinese personality from literature, proverbs,
surveys and previous research - this led to the identification of 10 trait clusters unique to the
Chinese personality and not covered by Western personality inventories:
Ren Qing (traditional relationship orientation emphasizing give and take and
thrift (vs. extravagance)
Ah-Q mentality (defensiveness)
veracisousness-slickness (trustworthiness)
face (reputation, social approval)
family orientation
somatization (expression of distress via physical symptoms)
4 factors emerged: dependability, Chinese tradition, social potency, and individualism
Cheung conducted a follow - up study and found 6 factors: 5 from the five-factor model plus
an indigenous personality factor called interpersonal relatedness - made up from harmony,
ren qing, and face
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