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Chapter 10

PSYB30H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Karen Horney, Narcissism, Harry Harlow


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Lisa Fiksenbaum
Chapter
10

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PSYB30: Personality Clara Rebello
PSYB30 Chapter 10 Psychoanalytic Approaches: Contemporary Issues
The Neo-Analytic Movement
Westen One of the most active proponents of contemporary psychoanalysis
Westen defines contemporary psychoanalysis as being based on the following five postulates
o The unconscious still plays a large role in life, although it may not be the ubiquitous
influence that Freud held it was
o Behaviour often reflects compromises in conflicts among mental processes, such as
emotions, motivations, and thoughts
o Childhood plays an important part in personality development, particularly in terms of
shaping adult relationship styles
o Mental representations of the self and relationships guide our interactions with others
o Personality development involves not just regulating sexual and aggressive feelings, but
also moving from an immature, socially dependent way of relating to others to a
mature, independent relationship style
There are a lot of conflicting opinions on the issue of motivated repression and memory
o Elizaeth Loftus argues that e should’t olude that all reoered eories are
false memories just because some have turned out apparently to be false
But e should’t assue that all are true because some have turned out to be
true
o One factor that might influence people to have false memories is the popular press
A book can tell you that the symptoms you experience are evidence that you
suffered from abuse as a child The symptoms could be found in abuse
victims, but reading something like this could create false memories of the
abuse (if there was any)
o Another factor is the behaviour of some therapists
Hypnosis is a technique used in therapy to get patients to recall freely childhood
experiences within the protection of a relaxed, suggestion-induced, trancelike
state
But a etesie sietifi literature shos that hposis does’t iproe
memory May be associated with increased distortions in memory
Under hypnosis, people are often more imaginative, more spontaneous, and
more emotional and often report unusual bodily sensations
o Loftus and colleagues have pointed to the specific techniques in psychotherapy that can
contribute to the creation of false memories
Hypnosis, suggestive interviewing, the interpretation of symptoms as signs of
past trauma, pressure from an authority to recall trauma, dream interpretation
Imagination inflation effect: Occurs when a memory is elaborated upon
through imagination, leading the person to confuse the imagined event with
events that actually happened
Loftus developed a misinformation paradigm whereby false memories can be
instilled in laboratory settings by exposing subjects to misinformation when
questioning them about some event
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PSYB30: Personality Clara Rebello
This technique can alter memory for even very personally stressful
events and such false memories were found to persist over an one and
a half years later when subjects were followed up
o Ma therapists eliee that effetie treatet ust result i a patiet’s oeroig
repressed memories and reclaiming a traumatic past
They may suffer from a confirmatory bias: The tendency to look only for
evidence that confirms their previous hunch and to not look for evidence that
might disconfirm their belief
Most contemporary psychologists eliee i the uosious, although it’s a differet ersio of
the unconscious than that found in classical psychoanalytic theory
o “oial pshologist Joh Bargh: People are ofte uaare of the reasos ad auses of
their own behaviour. In fact, recent experimental evidence points to a deep and
fundamental dissociation between conscious awareness and the mental processes
resposile for oe’s ehaiour
o Most psychologists believe that the unconscious can influence our behaviour
But not all agree with Freud that the unconscious can have its own autonomous
motivation
o Two differing views on the unconscious
Cognitive conscious view: The content of the unconscious mind is assumed to
operate just like thoughts in consciousness. Thoughts are unconscious because
the’re ot i osious aareess, ot eause the hae ee repressed or
because they represent unacceptable urges or wishes
Motivated conscious view: The idea that iforatio that’s uosious (e.
Repressed wish) can actually motivate or influence subsequent behaviour. This
notion was promoted by Freud and formed the basis for his ideas about the
unconscious sources of mental disorders and other problems with living
o Subliminal perception: Perception that bypasses conscious awareness, usually achieved
through very brief exposure times, typically less than 30 milliseconds
o Priming: Technique to make associated material more accessible to conscious
aareess tha aterial that is’t pried
Research using subliminal primes demonstrates that information can get into
the mind, and have some influence on it, without going through conscious
experience
Ego Psychology
Id psychology: Freud’s ersio of pshoaalsis foused o the id, espeiall the ti istits
of sex and aggression, and how the ego and superego respond to the demands of the id
o Freudian psychoanalysis can thus be called id psychology
Ego psychology: Post-Freudian psychoanalysts felt that the ego deserved more attention and
that it performed many constructive functions
o Erikson emphasized the ego as a powerful and independent part of personality, involved
i asterig the eiroet, ahieig oe’s goals, ad hee i estalishig oe’s
identity
o The approach to psychoanalysis started by Erikson was called ego psychology
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PSYB30: Personality Clara Rebello
o Identity can be thought of as an inner sense of who we are, of what makes us unique,
and a sense of continuity over time and a feeling of wholeness
Identity crisis: Ter oig fro Erikso’s ork referrig to the desperatio
ad ofusio a perso feels he he/she has’t yet developed a strong sense
of identity
Identity crisis is common during adolescence, but could also happen later in life
Midlife crisis
Erikso’s eight stages of deelopet
o Stage model of development: Implies that people go through the stages in a certain
order ad that there’s a speifi issue that haraterizes eah stage
o Developmental crisis: A conflict in a stage that needs to be resolved
o Notion of fixation If the crisis was not successfully and adaptively resolved, then
personality development could become arrested and the person would continue to be
preoccupied by that crisis in development
o Trust vs. Mistrust
First stage
Whe hildre are or, the’re opletely dependent on those around them
If children are well taken care of, if their basic needs are met, they will develop a
sense of trust in their caregivers
This sense of trust forms the basis of future relationships Children grow up
believing that other people are approachable, trustable, and generally good and
loving
Infants who are not well taken care of may develop a sense that others are not
to be trusted and may develop a lifelong pattern of mistrust in others,
suspiciousness, and feelings of estrangement, isolation, or social discomfort
when around others
o Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
“tage ko as the terrile tos Kids will be noisy, will run around and
generally just test their powers around their parents
A good outcome is when a child feels a sense of control and mastery over things
and develops self-confidence and a sense of autonomy that lets the child
explore and learn
If parents inhibit this autonomy by being strict, restrictive, or punishing when
the child is independent, the child may feel shame and doubt over the goals he
or she is contemplating
Overly protective parents can cause problems
o Initiative vs. Guilt
Children at age 3 often imitate adults, dressing in adult clothes, playing adults,
and acting as adults
Children at this stage receive their first practice in adult tasks during play
If all goes well, children at this stage develop a sense of initiative, which
translates into ambition and goal seeking
If thigs do’t go ell, hildre a eoe resiged to failure or to ot even
take the initiative to pursue goals
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