Chapter 7 psyb30.docx

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Chapter 7 :Motives and Goals: What do we want in life?
Motivation
People have inside of them wants, desires, aims and intentions
People act upon these wants producing behavior
The root word of motivation refers to movement
We have the need to pursue necessary goals
Characteristic adaptations are more specific and particular aspects of
psychological individuality that are contextualized in time place or social role
Characteristic adaptations make up level 2 of personality
Motives and goals are one class of characteristic adaptations they are those
aspects of personality that speak directly to that people want things and they act
upon those wants
The Psychoanalytic View
The most influential psychologist on the 20th century was Sigmund Freud
He was the prime inventor of psychoanalysis
the heart of the psychoanalytic view of personality is, Freud’s theory of
motivation
There are four basic parts to the theory
1. Determinism
2. Drive
3. Conflict
4. The unconscious
(1)Forces that we have little control determine all human behavior and experience
He said that somebody else is making the moves,
(2)and that these powerful forces exists within us, they can be traced back to
drives and instincts (drives for sexuality and aggression)
According to Freud people want sexual satisfaction, and suitable outlets for our
aggression
(3)The forces that determine all our behavior and experience are in conflict with
one another which causes us anxiety (we want to much of what we cant have)
(4) we don’t even know what those forces that determine our behavior and
anxiety are, there outside of our consciousness, they are unconscious to us
We have no control over our lives
For Freud sexuality and aggression are the wellsprings of human motivation
He said that there are 2 sets of instincts or drives
o Sexuality and all other life instincts EROS
o Aggression and all other death instincts THANATOS
The Unconscious (by Freud)
Its those scary things are stored away by every decent man
Fundamental proposition to the psychoanalytic view is that much of what we do
and feel is outside our every conscious awareness
Freud’s earliest clinical cases convinced him that the neurotic symptoms from
which his patients suffered from came from personal conflicts and fantasies which
were often sexual and aggressive which have been actively pushed from
consciousness
Conscious experience is the tip of the ice berg of human life
Hypnotism was used to gain access to the unconscious mind, and Jean Charcot
Freud’s teacher was behind it
In his topographical model of human functioning Freud distinguished between
conscious, unconscious and preconscious
Preconscious- it has material that the person isn’t currently aware but could
easily enter the awareness if the person retrieves the material, it’s the ordinary
memory
The unconscious- has elements that have been actively repressed, it’s a
repository for ideas, images urges and feelings that are associated with conflict,
pain, fear and guilt
Repressed unconscious- material is expressed in disguised or symbolic form ( in
dreams, fantasies, work , art or play)
Repression and Repressors
Research in cognitive science has shown that a great deal of everyday mental life
is outside of conscious awareness
People perceive, learn and remember many things without consciously aware of
doing so
These kinds of nonconscious cognitive operations are manifestations of implicit
information procession in human beings
Much of what we feel and think about people and social situations are driven by
nonconscious automatic mental processes
Dijsterhuis concludes that unconscious thought is often better able than
consciousness to process large amounts of information in an efficient and
effective manner
In the psychoanalytic view, repression is an inescapable fact of daily life, it’s the
function to reject and keep something out of consciousness ( something that can
harm you)
Repressors- are people who experience little anxiety on a conscious level and
who adopt a highly defensive approach to life
Penelope Davis conducted many studies examining how repressors recall
emotional experience in their lives (females college)
The results indicated that repressors tended to report fewer positive memories,
and a general failure to retrieve emotional memories of many kinds
They recalled fewer childhood experiences in which they felt happy, sad, angry,
fearful, guilty and self-conscious, but they had more experiences of other people
feeling this
These experiences directly threaten the self with a negative evaluation
Repress when the self is judged in a negative way
Architecture of repression by Hansen’s- emotionally tagged memories especially
unpleasant ones are left inaccessible
They said that repressors have an associative network for negative emotional
experiences its less complex than those found by other people
Repressors and non repressors organize their episodic memories indifferent ways
For repressors negative recollections have a simple structure and these memories
are split off from other memories, they simplify negative memories to emphasize
a single dominant feeling as a way of keeping other memories away
Non repressors describe their negative memories in more complex ways, and they
integrate the autobiographical self
For any given negative event repressors and nonrepressors reported comparable
levels of dominant emotion intensity
Meyers and Brewin showed that repressors reported that their parents were
neglecting and indifferent
George Bonanno has shown that in periods of extreme stress repressive coping
styles can lead to resilience- which is the ability to overcome difficult obstacles in
life and to thrive through adversity
The Ego’s Defenses
Freud said that the mind can be broken down into 3 independent structures
Id, Ego, and Superego
ID(it),
o it’s the home of the instinctual impulses of sex and aggression and their
wishes, fantasies,
o it provides all the instinctual energy for mental life,
o it doesn’t know any inhibitions,
o it obeys no logic or moral constraints,
o its untouched out of reality
o it’s the driving force of primary process thinking
o it manifests itself in unconscious ways
The activity of the ID is by the pleasure principle: its associated with dreaming,
and its motivated by the sexual and aggressive instincts
The Ego
o It’s the handmaiden to the ID, it mediates between the ID and the external
world
o It helps ensure the safety and self preservation by using the reality
principle, rational thought
o It’s the secondary process- its realistic in solving problems in a rational
and realistic manner
o It manifests itself on conscious ways
o It uses defense mechanisms which is an unconscious strategy of the go
that distorts reality in order to lessen anxiety
o There are 7 defense mechanisms
o Repression, projection, reaction formation, rationalization, regression,
displacement and sublimation TABLE 7.2 PAGE 267