Personality Chapter 2
Natural selection: a process whereby nature gradually selects those characteristics of an organisms that
promote sur vival and reproductive success.
Richard Dawkins made famous the idea OF SELFISH GENES
2 different ways a person can promote that likelihood of replicating:
1) Generate and promote one’s own biological offspring, a women who has 6 children will pass
twice as much genes than a person who has 3 children.
2) Protect the well being of those who share the same genes, so you don’t have any children but your
biological sister does.
Direct (through ones offspring) and indirect (through off spr ings kin)
Darwin could not explain why others would any organism would do anyt hing that compromised
its own sur vival and even reproductive success. Until idea of inclusive fitness came, which is an
organism’s total abi lity to maximize the replication of the genes that designed it. Part of this total
inclusive fitness involves own reproductive success but also of close relatives who share the same
Life on earth came 3.5 billion yea rs ago, period where humans emerged and evolved to cur rent form from
the past 2 million yea rs this period is called by geologists the Pleistocene epoch of earth histology.
Evolutionary psychologists call Pleistocene world the environment of evolut i ona ry adaptedness (EEA)
During the eea humans lived in groups, this cooperative world was benefit and could enhance inclusive
fitness in terms of establishing social relationships. Working in groups would be like an eye for an eye
favors returned to one another. And on top of that humans desire the company of others. As much as the
group life involved cooperation and care there was a lot of competition as well. Human groups tend to be
organized in hierchial ways this order or dominance was linked to the resources for sur vival and
reproductive success one had access.
Religion: Wilson said religion is an adaption, played a role in enabling people to live together because
they shared beliefs. Religion is a way to think about nature and people, when an object moves wit h no
cause children think that it is god. And also with religion we think of people as intentional agents who
typically act upon their beliefs. Theory of mind – age 4, understanding that people have minds filled with
desires and beliefs and that people act upon them.
There are problems for survival and reproduction such as competition, investment, list on pg 41. How do
we deal with these? Evolution has designed human mind so that it will generate tactics to produce goal
directed behaviors to promote inclusive fitness in the eea. Ex sexual activity has pleasure selfish genes,