parents’ love, not conform to peer pressure and base moral decisions
on abstract principles).
Moratorium: they are currently exploring identity issues but have not
yet made commitments and are uncertain about their future
(relatively mature, mature defense mechanisms, friendly but stormy
to parents, they are similar to identity achievers and believes parents
and authority figures are temporary negative identities what they
do not want to become).
Foreclosure: they fail to meet the identity challenge; they fail to
explore but make commitments to unquestioned positions taken from
childhood (close to parents, describe homes as loving, study diligently,
keep regular hours, appear happy, adopt a more authoritarian
outlook on the world, low scores on autonomy and anxiety and tend to
show unrealistically high aspirations).
Identity Diffusion: the most enigmatic; individuals that have yet to
enter exploration and they have yet to make commitments
(ambiguous, withdrawn, feel out of place, socially isolated and report
oPathmakers: both continuity and change in identity from college to midlife
and report self-doubt as present but not disabling (identity achievement
oSearchers: experience more self-doubt and self-criticism but they later find
themselves and made kinds of commitments pathmakers do (moratorium
oGuardians: used firm principles as a foundation upon which to build new and
interesting self-conceptions and discovered inner aspects of themselves by
midlife (foreclosure status).
oDrifters: life paths are checkered and complex but made considerable
progress by midlife in organizing their lives around commitments and goals
and they report the greatest number of regrets about the past they are
now actively exploring their options and revisiting their lives into their 30s
and 40s (identity diffusion status).
•Sixth Stage of Life: intimacy vs. isolation
oIntimacy Status (Orlofsky): interview that determines the quality of intimacy
in a person’s life (intimate, preintimate, stereotyped and isolate).
oMale students who showed relatively mature identity statuses of identity
achievement and moratorium tended to exhibit the more mature intimacy
statuses of intimate and preintimate.
oMen and women who successfully resolved identity questions tended to show
relatively high levels of intimacy.
oThe degree of identity resolution in young adulthood predicted the
establishment (men) and the stability (women) of marital relationships.
oYoung men with high levels of identity resolution were more likely to marry,
whereas those with low levels of identity tend to remain bachelors.
oYoung women with high levels of identity were less likely to experience
divorce and separation in their marriages than women low on identity.
•Seventh Stage of Life: generativity vs. stagnation
oMiddle adulthood focuses on caring for and leaving a legacy to benefit the
next generation while in later adulthood, the person is concerned with