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Chapter 7

Chapter 7 Notes

Course Code
Marc A Fournier

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Chapter 7
-motivation means movement at the root; what energizes & directs people to do what they
The Psychoanalytical View
-Sigmund Freud 1856- 1939
-invented psychoanalysis
-Freuds theory of motivation
-principles of determinism, drive, conflict, and the unconscious
-determinism: forces over which we have little control determine all human behaviour and
experience; we are not masters of our own fate
-drive: sexuality and aggression most prominent; powerful forces existing inside us tracing
back to primitive drives or instincts
-conflict: forces that determine our drives/instincts are in conflict with each other; no
avoiding conflict in life; destined to be miserable
-unconscious: we arent aware that this is all happening; we are conflicted and anxious and
dont know why
-for Freud, sexuality and aggression are the ultimate wellsprings of human motivation; the
primal energy sources for psychological life
-two sets of instincts or drives:
-Eros: sexuality and all other life instincts
-Thantos: aggression and all other death instincts
The Unconscious

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-much of what we know and feel is outside our conscious awareness and knowledge
-our lives are driven by intrapsychic mysteries that transpire at an unconscious level,
buried deep beneath the manifest surface of everyday waking consciousness
-tip of the iceberg
-topographical model of human functioning: conscious region contains what a person is
currently aware of; preconscious region contains material about which the person is not
currently aware but which could readily enter awareness; unconscious material cannot be
readily retrieved, contains elements of experience that have been actively repressed
-unconscious material is unconscious for a reason
Repression and Repressors
-much of what we feel and think about people and social situations appears to be driven by
nonconscious, automatic mental processes
-manifestations of implicit information processing in humans
-Dijksterhuis & his apartment choosing study; shows that unconscious thought is better
able than consciousness to process large amounts of info in an efficient and effective
manner; gut intuitions
-repression is an inescapable fact of daily life; feelings, desires, memories that are stored
away in an inaccessible unconscious realm because they threaten the persons well- being
-individual differences in repressiveness constitute an important feature of personality
-“repressors are people who experience little anxiety on a conscious level and who adopt a
highly defensive approach to life
-repressors show love levels of subjective distress, experience higher levels of internal
arousal; therefore even though they deny having anxiety over sexual and aggressiveness,
their bodily processes note otherwise
-Penelope Davis; study of college women show that repressors tended to report somewhat
fewer positive memories as well as negative
-didnt recall strong emotion memories, but recalled when others had strong emotions
-repression may operate most powerfully in the domain of self- evaluation

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-repressors simplify negative memories to emphasize a single dominant feeling, as a way of
keeping these memories from connecting in their minds to other autobiographical memories
containing other feelings
-nonrepressors tend to describe their negative memories in more complex terms,
emphasizing a number of different emotional states in the same memory and integrating
the negative memory with the main lines of their autobiographical self
-Hansen & Hansen study; found more evidence for this; each category of emotional memory
specified a corresponding dominant emotion and a set of nondominant emotions
-differences between repressors and other individuals were revealed in the nondominant
emotions, not in the dominant ones
-repressors tend to report that their parents were indifferent or neglecting
-negativity seems to seep out into their life accounts
-repressors are good at shifting their attention away from material that they wish to ignore
-having a repressive coping style has been linked to negative health affects like asthma,
cancer, hypertension, & suppressed immune function
-can sometimes be a good thing; can lead to resiliency in periods of extreme stress
-resilience: used to refer to the ability to overcome difficult obstacles in life and to thrive
amidst diversity
-researchers found, with bereaved individuals who exhibited a repressive coping style at the
first session tended to show better physical health and better psychological adjustment 18
months later
-Bonanno agrues that sometimes repression is the best way to deal with traumatic events in
The Egos Defences
-major conflicts that produce anxiety are often the result of the following disagreeing
-most primitive; submerged in the unconscious
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