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Chapter 17

PSYB30H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 17: Asian Americans, Parental Investment, Cultural Universal


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Lisa Fiksenbaum
Chapter
17

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Personality
Ch. 17 Culture & Personality (Social & Cultural Domains)
Among lowland Yanomamö men, one of the LEAST desirable personality characteristics is: cowardice.
Cultural Violations: An Illustration
Some aspects of personality (including attitudes, values, and self-concepts) are highly variable across
cultures.
The central questions addressed by culture & personality are “How do people from different cultures differ
in personality, and how are people from all cultures the same?
What is Cultural Personality Psychology?
The question of whether personality characteristics are universal addresses the: human nature level of
analysis.
Within-group similarities and between-group differences can be of any sorts— physical, psychological,
behavioural, or attitudinal – these phenomena are called cultural variations.
Tooby & Cosmides define cultural variations as within-group: similarities and between-group
differences.
Almost all members of the Bleeminese tribe go bowling. However, it is rare for a member of the
Bloopine tribe to bowl at all. This difference in behavior between the two tribes represents a:
cultural variations.
Cultural personality psychology has three key goals:
1. To discover the principles underlying the cultural diversity
2. To discover how human psychology shapes culture
3. To discover how cultural understandings in turn shape our personality
Three Major Approaches to Culture
Certain traits are common to all people, but others display variation; cultural variants are the personality
attributes that vary from group to group.
Evoked Culture
Evoked culture is defined as cultural differences created by differing environmental conditions activating a
predictable set of responses.
Two ingredients are necessary to explain cultural variations: (1) a Universal underlying mechanism and
(2) Environmental differences in the degree to which the underlying mechanism is activated – neither
ingredient alone is adequate for a complete explanation
Environmental conditions are most responsible for: evoked culture.
The bulky clothes that people in far northern cultures often wear is an example of: evoked culture.
OR: The X people live in a desert where the temperature often exceeds 100 degrees Fahrenheit. They
wear lightweight, loose robes and large-brimmed hats. The X people's mode of dress is an example
of: evoked culture.
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Characteristics that are universally common to all people, but only evident in some cultures are
examples of: evoked culture
Evoked Cooperation
Whether someone is cooperative or selfish is a central part of personality, but these proclivities may differ
from culture to culture.
High-variance conditions:
Evoked cooperation is usually the result of: high-variance conditions in the environment.
High-variance conditions are most associated with: sharing.
If every day all the hunters in a tribe successfully return from the daily hunting expedition with
plenty of slain animals, there will be: little evoked cooperation due to the: low-variance
conditions.
Research suggests that cooperative cultures develop: where resources are more variable.
The degree of egalitarianism is closely correlated with the variance in food supply.
Egalitarianism is associated with: high-variance conditions.
Early Experience & Evoked Mating Strategies
Jay Belsky and his colleagues believe that an early environment with harsh, rejecting, and inconsistent child
rearing practices, and erratic parental investment and marital discord will foster: in children an impulsive
personality and a mating strategy marked by earlier reproduction.
Children raised in unpredictable environments are more likely to: pursue a short-term mating
strategy.
They seem to learn that they cannot reply on a single mate and opt for a sexual life that starts
early ad inclines them to seek multiple mates.
The proclivity of evoked mating strategies to vary cross-culturally may be based upon
differences in the: value placed on chastity and parental investment across cultures.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic for cultures that emphasize chastity to their
children? They are more likely to: become extinct.
Honors, Insults, & Evoked Aggression
Nisbett and his colleagues have proposed the notion that a: culture of honor is a variable based upon
defending oneself against aggression evoked by other individuals in the environment.
Nisbet has proposed that the economic means of subsistence of a culture affects the degree to which
the group develops a culture of honor.
In cultures of honor, insults are viewed as highly offensive public challenges, which must be met
with direct confrontation and physical aggression.
Nisbett's "cultures of honor" is an example of: evoked culture.
According to Nisbett, honor is most important in: herding cultures.
Nisbett tested his theory by using homicide statistics from different regions within the U.S. and experiments
in which subjects from the northern & southern U.S.
Nisbett has attributed greater aggression among Southerners to: the greater need to protect resources
that could easily be stolen.
In a study by Nisbett,: Southerners were more likely to respond to insults with aggression.
Cultural Differences in Conformity
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