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Chapter 8-11,13,16,17

PSYB30H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8-11,13,16,17: Surgency, Impression Management, Differential Diagnosis

Course Code
Lisa Fiksenbaum

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Evolutionary Perspectives 02/06/2016
Natural Selection
Darwin reasoned that variants that better enabled an organism to
survive and reproduce would lead to more descendants
descendants would therefore inherit the variants that led to their
ancestors survival and reproduction
results in gradual changes in a species over time
successful variants spread throughout the gene pool, replacing less
successful variants
hostile forces of nature: any event that impeded survival
oEX: food shortages, parasites, diseases, extreme weather …
adaptations are mechanisms that evolve from natural selection
Sexual Selection
evolution of characteristics because of their mating benefits (rather
than survival)
intrasexual competition: same sex compete for access to
opposite sex
intersexual competition: members of one sex choose a mate
based on their preferences
Genes & Inclusive Fitness
genes: packets of DNA that are inherited by children from their
parents in distinct chunks
osmallest unit that can be inherited
differential gene reproduction: reproductive success relative to
oincludes successful survival and successful mating
inclusive fitness theory: characteristics that affect reproduction
need not affect the personal production of offspring, they can affect
the survival and reproduction of genetic relatives as well
obased on differential gene production
ocondition: cost to own reproduction must be less than benefit
of helping relative
opersonal reproductive fitness plus effects you have on
reproduction of relatives
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oexplains traits such as altruism
Products of the Evolutionary Process
evolution acts as a series of filters and only lets through …
1. Adaptations
oprimary product of selection
o“reliably developing structure in the organism which because
it meshes with the recurrent structure of the world, causes
the solution to an adaptive problem”
oEX: taste for sweet and fatty foods
oEX: drive to defend close relatives
reliable suggests development can be interfered by the
environment (not genetic determinism)
adaptations evolve from the selective environment
adaptive problem: anything that impedes
survival/reproduction or whose solution increases S/R
oshows special design
oancestral adaptions may not be adaptive in modern times
EX: xenophobia: fear of strangers
2. Byproducts of Adaptations
oevolutionary byproducts: incidental effects that are not
properly considered to be adaptations
oEX: nose made for smelling but happens to hold up glasses
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3. Random Variations (Noise)
oevolutionary noise: random variations that are neutral with
respect to selection
oEX: surface texture of light bulb varies but no effect
(3) Premises of Evolutionary Psychology
Domain Specificity
domain specific: adaptations are designed to solve a
particular adaptive problem
different problems require different solutions (needs to
be specific)
many adaptive mechanisms
EX: cardiovascular system
EX: psychological adaptations (fears, phobias)
notion that our psychological mechanisms are designed
to accomplish particular adaptive goals
need to know function to understand mechanisms &
Empirical Testing of Evolutionary Hypotheses
ohierarchy of evolution analysis
at the top, evolution by selection
Then, middle-level theories
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