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Chapter 9

PSYB30H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Moral Disengagement, Motivation, Observational Learning

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Marc A Fournier

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Chapter 9 Social Learning Theories
Moving away from Skinner’s mechanical model of behaviour
Reintroduced cognitive variables in the Stimulus Response Formula
Reflect careful scientific procedures of behaviourist approach
An Agentic Perspective
Earlier theories relied on principles of reinforcement to account for behaviour
Agentic perspective sees people as agents or originators of experience
Agency entails
o Intentionality
o Forethought (anticipation)
o Self reactiveness motive and regulate actions
o Self reflectiveness
Agentic self is constructed through experiences with the environment
Triadic Reciprocal Causation
Regulation of human behaviour through behaviour, cognition, and environmental factors
Self system is cognitive structures that regulate human behaviour
o Cognitive processes influence how our behaviour will be influenced by the environment
Learning Through Observation
Observational learning occurs intentionally or by accident
if learning a language was totally dependent on classical/operant conditioning, than it would not
occur so readily
new behaviours also occur through observation
o observers draw similar conclusions from different responses
Bandura focused on modelling (matching structure and style of behaviour) rather than imitating
Three factors affect observational learning
o Characteristics of the model
More likely to be influenced by someone who is similar to us
Simple behaviours more readily modeled
Certain kinds of behaviours more readily modeled (example aggressive)
o Attributes of the observer
Incompetent, self dependent, and highly motivated people are more likely to
model behaviour
Also people who have previously been rewarded for modeling
o Reward consequences associated with behaviour
More likely to model behaviour if they believe such actions will result in reward
Four processes govern observational learning
o Attentional processes characteristics of the model, nature of the activity, and nature
of subject determine what we pay attention to
o Retention processes representing the behaviour in some way before we use it later
o Motor production processes must convert representation into actions
o Motivational processes
We are more likely to engage in a modelled behaviour if it leads to favourable
Through self reinforcement, we engage in behaviours we see as self satisfying
Proper motivation influences the other processes to occur
From Reinforcement to Self Regulation
Observational learning occurs through processes WHILE being exposed to a modeled behaviour
and BEFORE any response has been made
o Thus it does not depend on external reinforcement
In observational learning reinforcement acts as a facilitator, not a necessary condition
Extrinsic reinforcement (secondary)is socially arranged (example encouragement)
Intrinsic reinforcement (primary) is naturally related to the behaviour, a physiological effect
o For example, feeling of relaxation
Vicarious reinforcement is when we learn about reinforcement and punishment of a behaviour
by observing others
Self reinforcement increases performance through motivation
o Is the most important
o We set standards for ourselves and respond to our own actions through self
reinforcement or punishment
Self regulation is influencing one’s own behaviour through:
o Self-monitoring understanding one’s actions, helps to set goals
o Self judgement evaluating ones own actions based on standards that are developed
through observing significant others and social influences
o Affective Self reaction good or bad feelings about ones actions that motivates us to
behave in similar or different ways
Aggression, Inhumane Behaviour, and Moral Disengagement
Possible relationship between violence in society and violence in television
Moral disengagement permits individuals to perpetuate violence by justifying their behaviour
Eventually through socialization we develop standards in which we use in self regulation but
these can be disengaged
Moral disengagement reduces prosocial feelings and encourages cognitive and emotional
reactions that favour aggression
Self Efficacy
People’s belief that they can successfully perform behaviours that will produce desired effects
Arises from past accomplishments, comparisons with others, social influences (persuasion) and
physical and emotional states
Can be individual or collective belief in the ability to achieve a group’s goals
Contribute to academic and athletic success
Can affect our body involved in health and disease
Psychotherapy and Behaviour Modifaction
Bandura added to behaviour modification by using modeling as a way to change behaviour
People who behave dysfunctionally have a poor sense of self efficacy
o Avoid situations that are threatening (hence phobias)
o Help patients develop self efficacy through guided mastery experiences
Change is maintained when
o New behaviour has a functional value for individual
o There is support
o Self reinforcement becomes a important reinforce to an individual
Thus practicing self regulation (and self judgement) is nessecary
Encourages using technology to modify behaviour computer assisted feedback
Julian Rotter
Internal Versus External Locus of Control
Locus of control is the extent to which someone believes that a reinforcements are controlled by
themselves or by outside forces
Developed the I E scale
o Internal and external on either extremes
Self efficacy is the belief that one can perform actions, locus of control is whether ones actions
will influence the outcomes
Internality increases with age, and becomes stable in middle age
Internals are more ready to learn, have good problem solving, and more achievement
Internals are more likely to know about things that lead to good health and suffer less problems
Internals are more responsible and independent
Externals are more likely to conform and to be anxious and depressed
Women tend to be externals more, socioeconomic status is correlated with locus of control
Minorities have external locus of control, but in the context of their culture, this may not be bad
Predicting Behaviour