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Chapter 11

PSYB30H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Factor Analysis, Job Performance, Extraversion And Introversion


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier
Chapter
11

Page:
of 4
Chapter 11 Factor Analytic, Genetic and Evolutionary Theories
Recognize the importance of heredity and the environment
Cattell’s Definition of Personality
Personality is what permits the prediction of what one will do in a given situation
R = f(P,S) Where a response (R) is a function (f) of the person (P) and the stimuli (S)
Freud developed his theory to understand the self but Cattell developed his to predict behaviour
Cattell unlike Allport was interested in the neurological components that influence behaviours,
he did not maintain that the traits had any real physical or neural status
Surface Traits Versus Source Traits
Needed to go beyond overt behaviours
Surface traits are overt behaviours that appear together
Source traits are underlying variables that determine surface traits
o This is valuable because
There is few to permit economy
Knowledge of source traits can permit predictions
16 basic source traits he called the building blocks of personality
Assessment and Research in Cattell’s Theory
Primary tool was Factor Analysis
o Begin with gathering large mass of data from many sources
o Is a correlational procedure
o Make a correlational matrix by finding a correlational coefficient for each variable to
show how it relates to each other one
o Then look for any clusters of high or low scores this is a factor
o Next find a correlation between the factors and each of the original variables
Syntality dimensions that allow us to describe and differentiate institutions and groups
The Big Five Personality Traits
Cattell provided the groundwork that led to the Big Five Openness, Conscientiousness,
Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism (OCEAN)
The big five arose out of the study of language, and the factor analysis of personality
questionnaires (Five Factor Model)
The Study of Language
Galton suggested that differences among people that affect how they interact are encoded in
words
Allport found that words in the English language could be personality attributes (not underlying
Within the vocabulary clusters develop that reflect the most important attributes
Cattell used allport’s list and used factor analysis to reduce it down to 16 items
Later researchers were only consistently able to replicate five
The Study of Personality Questionnaires and Ratings
Factor analysis of personality questionnaires led to the five factor model
Costa and McCrae found each of the five factors has a set of characteristics that are related
o There is a hierarchy that goes by specifity. The more specific the attribute, the more
likely it will predict behaviour in a given situation
Differences Between the Big Five and the Five Factor Model
The big Five stems from language and is purely description and not explanation
FFM is an interpretation of the big five
It has some additional claims that are not do not follow from the big five
o It asserts we can describe personality structure in terms of five broad categories, and an
individual can be described based on their scores on the measures
o It asserts differences are stable over time, and have a genetic basis
Five Factor Theory
Mcrae and Costa were cautious about moving from language based discriptions of personality to
conclusions of scientific structure
Explains the research findings on the five factor model
The core components of the personality system are :
o Basic tendencies (arise from biological bases)
o Characteristic adaptations (arise from interaction of basic tendencies and external
influences)
o Self concept
These interact with systems that are outside of personality
o Objective biography
o External influences
McAdams sees traits and adaptations as separate where McCrae and Costa see them as
interconnected
Applications of the Big Five and the Five Factor Model and Theory
Research on big five has been used to predict job performance
o Conscientousness associated with job success
Can also predict job satisfaction
o People perform better when there is a good fit between their work environment and
their personality type
Five constructs can show how concepts in different personality theories are related
Evolutionary Psychology Theory
David Buss
Is based on data from biology, anthropology, sociology, psychology, and neuroscience
Based on principles of Darwinism and natural selection
o Any characteristic that helps an individual survive and reproduce is more likely to be
passed on
Inclusive fitness giving aid to those who share our genes so that they can continue to be
passed on
Reciprocal altruism benefits are greater than the costs
Parental investment theory women seek mates who provide resources, men seek mates who
are based on appearance (which indicates reproductive capacity)
o Also women have greater investment
They attempt to show a biologic basis for the way we act today
We continue to engage in nonadaptive behaviours because cultural evolution proceeds faster
than biological evolution
Big Five traits represent strategic differences that are useful to human adaptation
Factor Analytic Trait Theories
Cattell’s theory created emphasis on quantitative methods and empirical data
Philosophical commitment to an empirical approach
Beyondism based on the thought that humanity is advancing biologically
Lecture Note:
People study only the 5 source traits (domains) instead of the 30 facets is because it’s just easier
o The only way you can justify it, is that if you are high on any of the facets, it is the same
result
Openness is the only of the big 5 that researchers did not really know what was
o It is described as being how intelligent you are
o There is very little correlation between how smart people are and how smart they
actually think they are
Thus, you CANNOT measure intelligence through self report
Men more angry about SEXUAL infidelity
o Because we want to make sure that the child is ours (evolutionary perspective)
o It was actually 50/50 for men