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Chapter 5

chapter 5 notes

13 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier

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Chapter 5 In the Brain and in Behaviour
E: Extraversion
Extraversion is the broadest dimension
Its a bipolar continuum that runs from the high end ( extremely high extraversion)
to the low end (extremely low introversion)
Extraversion is a family (domain) of smaller traits (sociability, warmth, excitement
seeking)
Social Behaviour and Cognitive Performance
Carl Jung, a psychologist speculated that extraverts use psychological energy
outward to the social world
He also said that introverts use their psychological energy inward toward private
thought and fantasy
Hans Eysenck made the same distinction
oHe claimed that extraverts are more outgoing but also a bit heedless and
impulsive
oHe claimed that introverts are more quiet and withdrawn but also a bit
contemplative and less likely to take bad risks
oTherefore, extraverts are more socially dominant and have more friends than
introverts, but introverts have deeper friendship with a few friends
Laboratory research shows that there is a relation between E and various cognitive
performance
oExtroverts perform better on tasks that require divided attention (geared to
respond)
oIntroverts perform better on takes that require careful attention to details
(geared to inspect)
There is also a difference in learning styles
oExtroverts prefer speed over accuracy
oIntroverts prefer accuracy over speed
www.notesolution.com
Feeling good
Extroverts report to have greater levels of positive effect in daily life than do
introverts
Why?
oOne explanation is that extroverts may be less responsive to punishment
than introverts
oIntroverts dwell more on the negative and punitive features of certain social
situations whereas extroverts face punishment and frustration
oA study by Pearce-McCall and Newman show that in an experiment, 50
introverts and 50 extroverts are to face a problem-solving task. Before the
task they are exposed to one of two pre-treatment conditions, randomly:
reward condition, punishment condition. After the pre-treatment the
students bet on how they will perform on subsequent problem solving tasks
The study found that introverts and extraverts bet the same amount of
money after receiving a reward but following a punishment, extraverts
show higher levels of betting and introverts show lower levels
oIn another study, Patterson, Kosson, and Newman found that following
punishment, extroverts dont stop and reflect, they push ahead for the next
trial, impulsively seeking rewards
Compared to introverts, extroverts have better ability to regulate their moods
oMood regulation is the ability to maintain a positive ratio of good to bad
feelings in life
oIn a study, after showing students a movie which started off as humorous and
followed by a tragic ending, extroverts were able to maintain the positive
mood than introverts were
Extroverts are more likely to recall positive mood states
oIna study, 56 students were asked to record their mood during the morning,
afternoon, and evening for a period of 90 days. Later when students were
asked to restate their overall mood state over the 90 day period, extroverts
recalled more positive states even higher than what they had reported
www.notesolution.com
To what is extent is the positive association between extraversion and positive affect
a function of the greater levels of participation in social activities?
oA path analysis (enables researchers to sort out statistically both direct and
indirect effects of variables on one another) was conducted to examine the
effect of extraversion on happiness and social competence
Findings show that the positive effect of extraversion on happiness is
due partly to a direct correlation between two variables and partly to
extraversions positive association with social competence, which itself
predicts happiness
How strong is the relation between extraversion and positive emotion?
oOne camp argues that the relationship is consistent and that extraversion
should be renamed to positive emotionality or positive affectivity
oOther researchers interpret this case as suggesting that while positive affect
and extraversion are indeed correlated, they arent the same thing
oNonetheless, people high in extraversion ten to report more positive emotion
than people low in extroversion
This could be partly to human nature, as we know that humans
evolved to live in small groups where people get along and get ahead
who become mandates for inclusive fitness
N: Neuroticism
The second of the big five traits is Neuroticism
oDescribed as the continuum from emotional instability to emotional stability
Characterized by chronic anxiety, depression, excessive emotionality,
nervousness, moodiness, vulnerability, etc.
oPeople who score high on this trait are distressed and unsatisfied in many
realms of their lives and people who score low on this trait are content and
satisfied with life
oThe individual differences is N are linked to difference in the experience of
negative emotional states
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 5 In the Brain and in Behaviour E: Extraversion Extraversion is the broadest dimension Its a bipolar continuum that runs from the high end ( extremely high extraversion) to the low end (extremely low introversion) Extraversion is a family (domain) of smaller traits (sociability, warmth, excitement seeking) Social Behaviour and Cognitive Performance Carl Jung, a psychologist speculated that extraverts use psychological energy outward to the social world He also said that introverts use their psychological energy inward toward private thought and fantasy Hans Eysenck made the same distinction o He claimed that extraverts are more outgoing but also a bit heedless and impulsive o He claimed that introverts are more quiet and withdrawn but also a bit contemplative and less likely to take bad risks o Therefore, extraverts are more socially dominant and have more friends than introverts, but introverts have deeper friendship with a few friends Laboratory research shows that there is a relation between E and various cognitive performance o Extroverts perform better on tasks that require divided attention (geared to respond) o Introverts perform better on takes that require careful attention to details (geared to inspect) There is also a difference in learning styles o Extroverts prefer speed over accuracy o Introverts prefer accuracy over speed www.notesolution.comFeeling good Extroverts report to have greater levels of positive effect in daily life than do introverts Why? o One explanation is that extroverts may be less responsive to punishment than introverts o Introverts dwell more on the negative and punitive features of certain social situations whereas extroverts face punishment and frustration o A study by Pearce-McCall and Newman show that in an experiment, 50 introverts and 50 extroverts are to face a problem-solving task. Before the task they are exposed to one of two pre-treatment conditions, randomly: reward condition, punishment condition. After the pre-treatment the students bet on how they will perform on subsequent problem solving tasks The study found that introverts and extraverts bet the same amount of money after receiving a reward but following a punishment, extraverts show higher levels of betting and introverts show lower levels o In another study, Patterson, Kosson, and Newman found that following punishment, extroverts dont stop and reflect, they push ahead for the next trial, impulsively seeking rewards Compared to introverts, extroverts have better ability to regulate their moods o Mood regulation is the ability to maintain a positive ratio of good to bad feelings in life o In a study, after showing students a movie which started off as humorous and followed by a tragic ending, extroverts were able to maintain the positive mood than introverts were Extroverts are more likely to recall positive mood states o Ina study, 56 students were asked to record their mood during the morning, afternoon, and evening for a period of 90 days. Later when students were asked to restate their overall mood state over the 90 day period, extroverts recalled more positive states even higher than what they had reported www.notesolution.com
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