Textbook Notes (381,015)
CA (168,316)
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Psychology (10,047)
PSYB30H3 (495)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1

2 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier

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Chapter 1: Studying the Person
Pers onality psychology in scientific study of the whole person
Ultimate goal is to construct scientifically credible account of psychological individuality
Study individua l differences in people
Develop ways to classify, categorize, organize diversity of psychological individuality
Look for biological and environmental forces and factors t hat explain those differences
Sketching an Outline: Dispositional Traits
Pers onality traits are those general, internal and comparative dispositions that we attribute to people in
our initial efforts to sort individuals into meaningful behavioural categor ies and to account for
consistencies we perceive or expect in behaviour from one situation to next and over time
The big five trait
oOpenness to experience (O)
oConscientiousness (C)
oExtraversion (E)
oAgreeableness (A )
oNeuroticism (N)
Big five traits sketch outline of person
Filling in the Details: Characteristic Adaptations
Trait attributes useful because they tell us about trends in behaviour over time and across different
situations, settings and contexts
Characteristics adaptations are contextual ized facets of psychological individuality that speak to
motivational, cognitive, and developmental concerns in personality
Theories in 3 major categories:
oHuman motivation: speak to question of what people fundamentally want/desire in life
Freud- humans are motivated by deep urges regarding sexuality and aggression
Rogers- needs for self-actualization and other growth promoting human tendencies
Mur ray- list of 20 basic psychological needs. Motives
McClelland- need for achievement, power, aff iliation/intimacy
oCognition and personality: underscore role of cognitive factors- values, beliefs, expectancies,
schemas, plans, personal constructs, cognitive styles- in human individuality
Kellys personal construct theory
oDevelopmental: focusing on evolution of self and its relationships with others from birth to old
age
Eriksons theor y of psychosocial development
Loevinger’s theor y of ego development
Constructing a Stor y: Integrative Life narratives
Level of identity as a life story
Life story: international and evolving narrative of self tha t integrates the reconstructed past, perceived
present, anticipated future in order to provide a life with sense of unity and pur pose
Science and the Person
Pers onality psychologists aim to study persons in scientific way
Science generally proceeds according to 3 steps:
oUnsystematic observation
oBuilding theories
oEvaluating propositions
3 steps refer both to what individual scientist does when exploring new problem or issue and what
particular fields of science do or have done
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Description
Chapter 1: Studying the Person Personality psychology in scientific study of the whole person Ultimate goal is to construct scientifically credible account of psychological individuality Study individual differences in people Develop ways to classify, categorize, organize diversity of psychological individuality Look for biological and environmental forces and factors that explain those differences Sketching an Outline: Dispositional Traits Personality traits are those general, internal and comparative dispositions that we attribute to people in our initial efforts to sort individuals into meaningful behavioural categories and to account for consistencies we perceive or expect in behaviour from one situation to next and over time The big five trait o Openness to experience (O) o Conscientiousness (C) o Extraversion (E) o Agreeableness (A) o Neuroticism (N) Big five traits sketch outline of person Filling in the Details: Characteristic Adaptations Trait attributes useful because they tell us about trends in behaviour over time and across different situations, settings and contexts Characteristics adaptations are contextualized facets of psychological individuality that speak to motivational, cognitive, and developmental concerns in personality Theories in 3 major categories: o Human motivation: speak to question of what people fundamentally wantdesire in life Freud- hu
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