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Chapter 3

Chapter 3

3 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier

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Chapter 3: Social Learning and Culture
B.F. Skinner- positive reinforcement: rewarding socially desirable behaviour
Behaviourism and Social- Learning Theory
American Environmentalism: The Behaviourist Tradition
Behaviourism: brand of psychology that explores ways in which observable behaviour learned and
shaped by environment
oFounder Watson- can take any infant and raise him to be any kind of adult
Locke-tabula rasa- experienceswrites upon slate
oEnvironment shapes person
We learn in order to obtain pleasure and avoid pain
Epicurus- not only do optimal please and minimal pain make men and women happy, also serve as
foundations for ethical action
Utilitarianism- good society should make for greatest happiness or pleasure for greatest number of
people
oBentham and Mill- can be accomplished if societies structured in more egalitarian fashion
Learning shaped by pleasure and pain, leaning make for greatest amount pleasure and least amount of
pain
Great deal of learning occurs through association of actions with either positive (pleasurable) or negative
(painful) events
Associationism: various objects and ideas that are contiguous in time or space come to be connected or
associated, with each other into meaningful units
Classical conditioning- Pavlov, dog salivating
oWatson- Little Albert
Higher-order condition: conditioned stimuli, obtained their eliciting power through associations with
unconditioned stimuli
Second form of learning is instrumental conditioning, Skinner call operant conditioning
oOperant conditioning- behaviour modified by its consequence
oPositive consequences for behaviour increase likelihood of its recurrence reinforcing
association between behaviour and various stimuli in environment present at time behaviour
occurred
oNegative consequences decrease likelihood behaviour will recur weakening stimuli- response
connections
oProcess of reinforcing closer and closer approximations to desired behaviour in attempt to elicit
that behaviour called shaping
Partial reinforcement: particular response is reinforced intermittently
Continuous reinforcement: response reinforced every time it occurs
oWhen behaviour no longer reinforced, extinction might eventually occur
Conditioned generalized reinforcers: reinforcers that acquire their power because of their association
with variety of other reinforcers
oBest example, money- enables to purchase great variety of other reinforcers
Arnold Buss- divides social reinforcers into 2 general classes:
oStimulation rewards- attention
oAffective rewards- respect, praise affection, emotional response
Expectancies and Values
Key concept in Rotter’s social learning theory is expectancy- subjectively held probability that particular
reinforcement for certain behaviours in certain situations but not in others
Locus of control- generalized expectancies
oInternal locus of control expect reinforcements and rewards to follow their own actions
Believes own behaviour controls consequences that follows
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Description
Chapter 3: Social Learning and Culture B.F. Skinner- positive reinforcement: rewarding socially desirable behaviour Behaviourism and Social- Learning Theory American Environmentalism: The Behaviourist Tradition Behaviourism: brand of psychology that explores ways in which observable behaviour learned and shaped by environment o Founder Watson- can take any infant and raise him to be any kind of adult Locke-tabula rasa- experiences writes upon slate o Environment shapes person We learn in order to obtain pleasure and avoid pain Epicurus- not only do optimal please and minimal pain make men and women happy, also serve as foundations for ethical action Utilitarianism- good society should make for greatest happiness or pleasure for greatest number of people o Bentham and Mill- can be accomplished if societies structured in more egalitarian fashion Learning shaped by pleasure and pain, leaning make for greatest amount pleasure and least amount of pain Great deal of learning occurs through association of actions with either positive (pleasurable) or negative (painful) events Associationism: various objects and ideas that are contiguous in time or space come to be connected or associated, with each other into meaningful units Classical conditioning- Pavlov, dog salivating o Watson- Little Albert Higher-order condition: conditioned stimuli, obtained their eliciting power through associations with unconditioned stimuli Second form of learning is instrumental conditioning, Skinner call operant conditioning o Operant
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