Textbook Notes (381,335)
CA (168,503)
UTSC (19,326)
Psychology (10,054)
PSYB30H3 (495)
Chapter 6

Chapter 6

3 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier

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Chapter 6: Continuity and Change in Traits: The Roles of Genes, Environment, and Time
Two Kinds of Continuity
Absolute continuity- constancy in quantity or amount of attribute over time
oUsually understood in terms of group averages on given trait
Differential continuity- consistency of individual differences within sample of individuals over time, to
retention of individuals relative placement in group
Absolute continuity and differential continuity completely unrelated to each other
oAbsolute continuity refers to consistency of average score on given trait over time
oDifferential continuity refers to stability of individual differences in scores
Differential Continuity in Adult Years
Longitudinal studies show remarkably high differential continuity in personality traits over adult lifespan
Trait ratings in children show less differential continuity than do trait ratings in adulthood
Childhood Precursors: From Temperament to Traits
Temperament dimensions may representearly in life framework” out of which personality traits
eventually emerge
3 different types of temperament patterns:
oEasy babies: show consistently positive mood, low to moderate intensity of emotional reactions,
regular sleeping and eating cycles
oDifficult babies: consistently negative moods, intense emotional reactions, irregular sleeping and
eating cycles
oSlow to warm up babies: combination with relatively negative moods, low intensity of emotional
reactions, tendency to withdraw from new events at first but then approach them later
Behavioural inhibition- extremely inhibited young children show great timidity in face of new events and
people
Effortful control: young children find it extremely difficult to control their impulses, others able to keep
themselves in check in situations where impulsive behaviour could lead to trouble
oChild’s active and voluntary capacity to withhold dominant response in order to enact
subordinate response given situational demands
oMay be important factor in moral development and consolidation of conscience
oFrom very early age onward, girls tend to show better effortful control than boys
Differences also linked to social class
Developmental elaboration- temperament dimensions gradually develop into more fully articulated
personality traits
oComplex interplay through which inborn tendencies shape and are shaped by environmental
inputs over long period of time
Inborn temperament differences influences
oHow children learn
oHow they construe their environments
oHow other people in environment respond to them
oHow they compare themselves to other children
oWhat kinds of environments they choose
oHow they manipulate environments once they choose them
The Logic of Twin and Adoption Studies
Personality traits are products of interaction of our genes and environments
Examine relative influences of genetic differences and environmental differences on variability we
perceive in given sample or population of organisms
Heritability quotient- estimates proportion of variability in given characteristic that can be attributed to
genetic differences between people
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Description
Chapter 6: Continuity and Change in Traits: The Roles of Genes, Environment, and Time Two Kinds of Continuity Absolute continuity- constancy in quantity or amount of attribute over time o Usually understood in terms of group averages on given trait Differential continuity- consistency of individual differences within sample of individuals over time, to retention of individuals relative placement in group Absolute continuity and differential continuity completely unrelated to each other o Absolute continuity refers to consistency of average score on given trait over time o Differential continuity refers to stability of individual differences in scores Differential Continuity in Adult Years Longitudinal studies show remarkably high differential continuity in personality traits over adult lifespan Trait ratings in children show less differential continuity than do trait ratings in adulthood Childhood Precursors: From Temperament to Traits Temperament dimensions may represent early in life framework out of which personality traits eventually emerge 3 different types of temperament patterns: o Easy babies: show consistently positive mood, low to moderate intensity of emotional reactions, regular sleeping and eating cycles o Difficult babies: consistently negative moods, intense emotional reactions, irregular sleeping and eating cycles o Slow to warm up babies: combination with relatively negative moods, low intensity of emotional reactions, tendency to withdraw from new events at first but then approach them later Behavioural inhibition- extremely inhibited young children show great timidity in f
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