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Chapter 7

CHAPTER 7: "MOTIVES AND GOALS"

12 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier

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B30: Personality
Chapter 7: Motives and Goals ~ What Do We Want In Life?
Motivation- used to denote the forces and factors, usually viewed as residing
within the person, that energize and direct behaviour. Common motivational ideas
in personality psychology include wants, desires, needs, goals, striving, projects
and tasks
THE PSYCHOANALYTIC VIEW
Sigmund Freud
Most influential psychologist of the 20th century
Prime inventor of “psychoanalysis- aspect of psychology that focuses on
the unconscious determinants of behavior, intrapsychic conflict, and
instinctual drives concerning sexuality and aggression. It also denotes the
process of engaging in psychotherapy from a psychoanalytic standpoint.
At the heart of the psychoanalytic view of personality is Freud’s theory of
motivation which can be boiled down to four basic propositions:
(1) determinism
(2) drive
(3) conflict
(4) unconscious
·first, forces over which we have little control determine all
human behaviour and experience; Freud insisted that we
are like the pawns on a chess game, somebody else is
making the moves
·second, these powerful forces exist within us, and can
typically be traced back to primitive drives or instincts
most importantly our drives for sexuality and
aggression
third, the forces that determine all our behaviour and
experience are in perpetual conflict with one another,
which causes us anxiety (id-ego-superego); conflict
between our primitive urges and societal constraints as well
as conflicts deep within ourselves
we want too much that we can never have, thus we
are destined to be miserable
fourth, the most important determinants of and conflicts in
our lives are outsides of our consciousness~ they are
unconscious to us and we are unconscious to them; we have
virtually no control of our lives, so we are conflicted and
anxious and don’t know why.
www.notesolution.com
2
for Freud, sexuality and aggression provide the motive force, drive and
thrust for all of our behaviour
he eventually settled on the idea that there exist two sets of instincts or
drives:
(1) sexuality and all other life instincts- serving sexual reproduction and
survival (Eros)
(2) aggression and all other death instincts- assumed to motivate the person
toward behaviour and experience promoting one’s own death and
destruction or aggression towards others. (Thanatos)
THE UNCONSCIOUS
unconscious- the state of being outside of awareness. It is a shadowy realm of the
mind wherein resides repressed thoughts, feelings, memories, conflicts and the
life
we do not and typically cannot know what the “real reasons are for what we do
because the prime determinants of human behaviour are split off from what we
typically can grasp in conscious everyday experience
in his topographical model of functioning, Freud distinguished among conscious,
preconscious and unconscious regions of the mind
othe conscious corresponds to everyday awareness; the preconscious
contains the contents ordinary memory to which awareness may be
directed at any time; and the unconscious contains wishes, feelings,
memories and so on that have been repressed because they threaten the
well being of the conscious self
REPRESSION AND REPRESSORS
research in cognitive science has shown conclusively that a great deal of everyday
mental life is outside of conscious awareness
people perceive, learn, and remember many things without being consciously
aware of doing so
these kinds of nonconscious cognitive operations are manifestations of implicit
information processing in human beings
recent theory and research further suggests that unconscious thinking may
sometimes be superior to conscious thought in reaching correct solutions to
complex problems
Freud was mainly concerned with thoughts, feelings, desires, and memories that
may be stored away in an inaccessible, unconscious realm because they threaten
the person’s well being
repression- Freud’s concept for the process of casting thoughts, memories,
feelings, and conflicts out of consciousness, rendering them unremembered
repressors- individuals who show low levels of anxiety but high levels of
defensiveness. Research suggests that repressors have less access than do other
people to negative emotional memories about the self.
www.notesolution.com
3
Repressors
report fewer positive memories (repression may involve a more
general failure to retrieve emotional memories of various kinds)
they also recalled fewer childhood experiences in which they felt
happy, sad, angry, fearful, guilty and self conscious
were more easier to recall memories in which someone else felt happy,
sad, angry, or fearful (but fewer memories of their own, especially
painful memories are harder to surface)
works powerfully in the domain of self evaluation
repressors simplify negative memories to emphasize a single dominant feeling, as
a way of keeping these memories from connecting in their minds to other
autobiographical memories containing other feelings
by contrast, nonrepressors tend to describe their negative memories in
more complex terms, emphasizing a number of different emotional
states in the same memory and integrating the negative memory with
the main lines of their autobiographical self
sadness was the dominant emotion but that other nondominant emotions of
depression, anger, and fear could also be identified
sad memories produced less depression, anger, and fear for repressors
than for nonrepressors
embarrassing memories showed the dominant emotion of embarrassment but were
also tagged with the nondominant emotion of shame
embarrassing memories were rated just as emotionally embarrassing
by repressors as by nonrepressors ~ but repressors tended to rate the
nondominant emotions associated with the given memory at less
intense levels
repressors cordon off the negatively associated with any given memory, keeping it
from spreading to other recollections of the past
BAD TO REPRESS: associated with asthma, cancer, hypertension, suppressed
immune function
GOOD TO REPRESS: resilience- the ability to overcome difficult obstacles in
life and thrive amidst adversity, can be a good coping style to get over hard events
(i.e. death)
THE EGO’S DEFENCE
ID
Submerged in unconscious
It is the home of the instinctual impulses of sex and aggression and their
derivative wishes, fantasies and inclinations
It is chaotic, seething cauldron that provides all the instinctual energy for the
mental life
It knows no inhibitions; it obeys no logical or moral constraints and
completely out of touch with the outside world
www.notesolution.com

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Description
B30: Personality Chapter 7: Motives and Goals ~ What Do We Want In Life? Motivation- used to denote the forces and factors, usually viewed as residing within the person, that energize and direct behaviour. Common motivational ideas in personality psychology include wants, desires, needs, goals, striving, projects and tasks THE PSYCHOANALYTIC VIEW Sigmund Freud th Most influential psychologist of the 20 century Prime inventor of psychoanalysis- aspect of psychology that focuses on the unconscious determinants of behavior, intrapsychic conflict, and instinctual drives concerning sexuality and aggression. It also denotes the process of engaging in psychotherapy from a psychoanalytic standpoint. At the heart of the psychoanalytic view of personality is Freuds theory of motivation which can be boiled down to four basic propositions: (1) determinism (2) drive (3) conflict (4) unconscious first, forces over which we have little control determine all human behaviour and experience; Freud insisted that we are like the pawns on a chess game, somebody else is making the moves second, these powerful forces exist within us, and can typically be traced back to primitive drives or instincts most importantly our drives for sexuality and aggression third, the forces that determine all our behaviour and experience are in perpetual conflict with one another, which causes us anxiety (id-ego-superego); conflict between our primitive urges and societal constraints as well as conflicts deep within ourselves we want too much that we can never have, thus we are destined to be miserable fourth, the most important determinants of and conflicts in our lives are outsides of our consciousness~ they are unconscious to us and we are unconscious to them; we have virtually no control of our lives, so we are conflicted and anxious and dont know why. 1 www.notesolution.com for Freud, sexuality and aggression provide the motive force, drive and thrust for all of our behaviour he eventually settled on the idea that there exist two sets of instincts or drives: (1) sexuality and all other life instincts- serving sexual reproduction and survival (Eros) (2) aggression and all other death instincts- assumed to motivate the person toward behaviour and experience promoting ones own death and destruction or aggression towards others. (Thanatos) THE UNCONSCIOUS unconscious- the state of being outside of awareness. It is a shadowy realm of the mind wherein resides repressed thoughts, feelings, memories, conflicts and the life we do not and typically cannot know what the real reasons are for what we do because the prime determinants of human behaviour are split off from what we typically can grasp in conscious everyday experience in his topographical model of functioning, Freud distinguished among conscious, preconscious and unconscious regions of the mind o the conscious corresponds to everyday awareness; the preconscious contains the contents ordinary memory to which awareness may be directed at any time; and the unconscious contains wishes, feelings, memories and so on that have been repressed because they threaten the well being of the conscious self REPRESSION AND REPRESSORS research in cognitive science has shown conclusively that a great deal of everyday mental life is outside of conscious awareness people perceive, learn, and remember many things without being consciously aware of doing so these kinds of nonconscious cognitive operations are manifestations of implicit information processing in human beings recent theory and research further suggests that unconscious thinking may sometimes be superior to conscious thought in reaching correct solutions to complex problems Freud was mainly concerned with thoughts, feelings, desires, and memories that may be stored away in an inaccessible, unconscious realm because they threaten the persons well being repression- Freuds concept for the process of casting thoughts, memories, feelings, and conflicts out of consciousness, rendering them unremembered repressors- individuals who show low levels of anxiety but high levels of defensiveness. Research suggests that repressors have less access than do other people to negative emotional memories about the self. 2 www.notesolution.com
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