•Erikson interpreted this stage as autonomy vs shame and doubt, this stage when the toddler seeks to
establish him or herself as an independent and competent agent in the environment.
•The toddler struggles to attain a degree of freedom, independence, and mastery of the self, and to avoid
humiliation, shame, doubt, and other experiences in which the childs budding sense of self sufficiency is
oAdvances in locomotion, language and exploratory play provide these opportunities to conquer this.
The 3rd stage is the phallic stage; the libido is centered in the genital region.
•Because children may unconsciously experience sexual feelings toward one parent and aggressive towards
the other, Freud named this dynamic the Oedipus complex
•Erikson’s 3rd stage of the life cycle is preoccupied with questions of power
•Initiative vs. guilt is the basic psychosocial issue for the preschool boy and girl.
oBoys tend to adopt a more intrusive mode of operation- Erikson’s concept for a young boy’s
characteristically phallic and aggressive approach to the world.
oWhereas girls tend to adopt the inclusive mode of operation-involving teasing, demanding and
grasping in an attempt to snare others.
The 4th stage is the latency stage, where the libido is rarely expressed in an overt manner.
•The elementary school years are a time of expanding socialization as children come to internalize the
values, norms, rules, and skills offered by society.
•For Erikson, the this child has begun a very important phase in which he/she will repeatedly face the
challenges of industry vs inferiority- when they receive systematic instruction from social institutions and
beings to learn how to use the tools and adopt the characteristic roles of society.
•Wider society becomes significant; they learn proper modes and manners in and out of the workplace.
THE PROBLEM OF IDENTITY
For Erikson, the early stages are but a prelude to the main act of late adolescence and young adulthood, a period in
the life course that many social scientists today called emerging adulthood- This is the stage within
which the issue of identity is first confronted.
The first four stages of childhood leave the person with a unique pool of resources and handicaps, strengths and
weaknesses that will be called upon in the making of an identity.
ADOLESCENCE AND YOUNG ADULTHOOD
The 5th stage (out of childhood and into adulthood), is the genital stage- the end of development.
•Erikson too viewed puberty as an ending and a transformation