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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 in detail

17 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier

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Chapter 8: Personality Social Cognitive Aspects
Assumption human beings are complex information-processing systems that operate in social environments
Cognition influences social behavior . Social behavior influences cognition.
Social cognitive adaptations Traits provide a rough sketch; characteristic mental representations of self and social behavior
(Social-cognitive aspect) help fill in gaps
George Kelleys Theory Person (as an inquisitive scientist) is motivated to predict or anticipate what will happen to him
Cannot simply use: Sexual & aggressive instincts (Freud), principles of reinforcement (Behaviorists), needs & motives (Murray &
McClelland), or goals, strivings, or urge to self-actualize (Rogers & Maslow) to explain what motivates ppl to act. Ppl are alive, they
act by virtue of being alive.
Personal Constructs Characteristic ways of construing how some things are alike and some things different from one another (bipolar; e.g.
serious/funny)
Fundamental Postulate A persons processes are psychologically channelized by the ways in which he anticipates events
oThe Psychology of Personal Constructs
George Kelleys Theory
Exploring Personal Constructs: Rep Test
oCognitive Styles and Personality
Field Independence-Dependence
Integrative Complexity
oSocial-Cognitive Theory and the Person
(Feature 8.A Religious Values and Personality)
www.notesolution.com
Corallaries Experience, Organization, Individuality, Sociality, Range (Range of Convenience), Modulation, Fragmentation, Construction,
Dichotomy, Choice, Communality.
When we confront inexplicable events (outside range of convenience) which our construct system does not seem to be prepared, we expe
anxiety.
Guilt
perception that one is no longer living according to an especially valued aspect of ones personal-construct system
Role Construct Repertory Test (Rep Test) - Personality assessment designed by Kelly to explore personal constructs in ppls lives.
Role title list compare and contrast usage of same construct is concluded to be a valuable construct of your life
Procedures have been developed for quantifying results from Rep test. One line of research examined individual differences in
Cognitive Complexity and another line of research examined Construct Similarity among friends.
Cognitive Complexity When use many different kinds of constructs, said to manifest higher lvls of cognitive complexity (vice
versa)
Construct Similarity Ppl who have similar construct systems tend to become close friends and remain friends for longer
periods of time
Construct similarity > Trait similarity in predicting friendship formation (Sharing meanings may be more important
than doing the same thing)
Cognitive Styles & Personality
Kellys individuality corollary stressed that ppl differ from one another in the manner in which they construe events, this idea has been
recognized for centuries.
Cognitive Style Ppls characteristic way and typically preferred modes of processing information
a persons characteristic way /manner of processing information. NOT the same as Cognitive abilities (how well a person performs on a
task)
Cognitive style is partly captured in the Big 5 trait taxonomy via cluster O Openness to Experience
www.notesolution.com
Ppl high in O tend to process information in a more nuanced, differentiated, and abstract manner; ppl low in O tend to see
fewer distinctions and adhere to concrete and clearly defined categories
Field Independence Dependence (bipolar continuum)
Field–dependant
Perception and judgment of perpendicularity depend on field or environment intilted room & tilted chair experiment
Employ external frames of reference available in the field
More global and intuitive in processing information about the world engage in less cognitive restructuring accepting information
from the environment in its own contextual terms rather than employing internal plans and guidelines for information processing
Interest in humanitarian and social-welfare professions ministry, social work, teaching young children, social sciences, selling &
advertising
More sensitive to social context (pay closer attn to interpersonal cues and social info, more sustained eye contact, prefer being
physically closer to ppl “(disturbances in speech, distance from listener) experiment
Women tend to score higher in Field-dependent
Along the lifespan, in childhood you tend to be relatively field-dependent in comparison to adulthood
Tend to report an emphasis on parental authority in their families
Shame > Guilt
Tend to describe ppl in +ve terms
Predominant in agricultural, agragarian societies
Field-independent
Bypass field and make perception and judgment according to inner cues intilted room & tilted chair experiment
Process info in an analytical and differentiated style
Rely on internal frame of reference that enable them to act upon information in highly autonomous fashion
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 8: Personality Social Cognitive Aspects o The Psychology of Personal Constructs George Kelleys Theory Exploring Personal Constructs: Rep Test o Cognitive Styles and Personality Field Independence-Dependence Integrative Complexity o Social-Cognitive Theory and the Person (Feature 8.A Religious Values and Personality) Assumption human beings are complex information-processing systems that operate in social environments Cognition influences social behavior. Social behavior influences cognition. Social cognitive adaptations Traits provide a rough sketch; characteristic mental representations of self and social behavior (Social-cognitive aspect) help fill in gaps George Kelleys Theory Person (as an inquisitive scientist) is motivated to predict or anticipate what will happen to him Cannot simply use: Sexual & aggressive instincts (Freud), principles of reinforcement (Behaviorists), needs & motives (Murray & McClelland), or goals, strivings, or urge to self-actualize (Rogers & Maslow) to explain what motivates ppl to act. Ppl are alive, they act by virtue of being alive. Personal Constructs Characteristic ways of construing how some things are alike and some things different from one another (bipolar; e.g. seriousfunny) Fundamental Postulate A persons processes are psychologically channelized by the ways in which he anticipates events www.notesolution.comCorallaries Experience, Organization, Individuality, Sociality, Range (Range of Convenience), Modulation, Fragmentation, Construction, Dichotomy, Choice, Communality. When we confront inexplicable events (outside range of convenience) which our construct system does not seem to be prepared, we expe anxiety. Guilt perception that one is no longer living according to an especially valued aspect of ones personal-construct system Role Construct Repertory Test (Rep Test) - Personality assessment designed by Kelly to explore personal constructs in ppls lives. Role title list compare and contras t usage of same construct is concluded to be a valuable construct of your life Procedures have been developed for quantifying results from Rep test. One line of research examined individual differences in Cognitive Complexita ynd another line of research examinC ednstruct Similarityamong friends. Cognitive Complexity When use many different kinds of constructs, said to manifest higher lvls of cognitive complexity (vice versa) Construct Similarity Ppl who have similar construct systems tend to become close friends and remain friends for longer periods of time Construct similarity > Trait similaritin predictingfriendship formation(Sharing meanings may be more important than doing the same thing) Cognitive Styles & Personality Kellys individuality corollary stressed that ppl differ from one another in the manner in which they construe events, this idea has been recognized for centuries. Cognitive Style Ppls characteristic way and typically preferred modes of processing information a persons characteristic way manner of processing informa Ntion.the same asCognitive abilities (how well a person performs on a task) Cognitive style is partly captured in Beig 5 trait taxonomyvia clusterO Openness to Experience www.notesolution.com
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