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PSYB30H3 (492)
Chapter 7

Chapter 7 notes

14 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier

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Chapter 7 – Motives and Goals: What Do We Want in Life?
Motivation: a term used to denote the forces and factors, usually viewed as residing
within the person that energizes and direct behaviour. Common motivational ideas in
personality psychology include wants, desires, needs, goals, strivings, projects, and tasks.
Human behaviour is driven bywants and motivation is referred to the “movement
What gets people moving?
Eric klinger animals go out to get the things they need or want in order to survive
(much like humans)
Look at characteristic adaptations that define a particular human life
Characteristic Adaptations: more specific and psychological individuality that are
contextualized in time, place, or social role
oMake up level 2 of psychology
oMotives and goals are one class of characteristic adaptations
oPeople want things and they act upon it
THE PSYCHOANALYTIC VIEW
Sigmund Freud
oMost influential psychologist in 20th century
oPrime inventor of psychoanalysis
oPsychoanalysis: a general term for the approach to psychology pioneered by
Freud and others who tend to focus on the unconscious determinants of behaviour,
intrapsychic conflict, and instinctual drives concerning sexuality and aggression.
The term also denotes the process of engaging in psychotherapy from a
psychoanalytic standpoint
oInhibitions, repressed memories, the Oedipus complex and Freudian slips
oThe heart of psychoanalytic view of personality s Freud’s theory of motivation
Four basic propositions: 1) determinism 2) drive 3) conflict 4)
unconscious
www.notesolution.com
Determinism – forces over which we have little control determine all
human behaviour and experience
Drive – these forces exist within us and they can be traced back to
primitive drives or instincts and most important drives are sexuality and
aggression
Conflict – the forces that determine all our behaviour and experience are
in perpetual conflict with one another, which causes anxiety
Unconscious – we do not know what those farces that determine our
behaviour and those conflicts in our lives are outside of our consciousness
– they are unconscious to us
oTwo drives
1) sexual and all other life instincts (this group of instincts is sometimes
termedEros)
2) aggression and all other death instincts (sometimes grouped under the
name of “Thanatos)
Life instincts: Freud concept for a group of instincts serving sexual
reproduction and survival
Death instincts: Freud’s concept for a group of instinctual drives assumed
to motivate the person toward behaviour and experience promoting ones
own death and destruction or aggression toward others
THE UNCONSCIOUS
Unconscious: the state of being outside of awareness. For Freud, the unconscious is a
shadowy realm of the mind wherein reside repressed thoughts, feelings, memories,
conflicts, and the like.
Analogy of tip of the iceberg – most of the iceberg is underwater which is what is really
important in human life lies beneath the surface of consciousness
Started with Arthur Schopenhauer and friedrich Nietzsche who emphasized aspects of
human functioning that are outside of consciousness – emotional and irrational urges that
are antagonistic to conscious reason
Hypnotism was used to access the unconscious mind
www.notesolution.com
Victorians used hypnotism
Topographical model: Freuds model of the mind, which distinguishes among the
conscious, preconscious and unconscious regions. The conscious corresponds to everyday
awareness; the preconscious contains the contents of ordinary memory, to which
awareness may be directed at any time; and the unconscious contains wishes, feelings,
memories, and so on that have been repressed because they threaten the well-being of the
conscious self.
Preconscious is a vast storehouse of important and trivial information that we can use at
any time
Conscious are things we have experienced that we repress and so they are unconscious for
a reason
REPRESSION AND REPRESSORS
Freud’s general view that mental life is largely outside conscious awareness
People perceive, learn, and remember things without consciously aware of doing so 
these kinds of nonconscious cognitive operations are manifestations of implicit
information processing in human beings
Unconscious thinking may be superior to conscious thought in reaching correct solutions
to complex problems
Diskstenjuis unconscious thought is better able than consciousness to process large
amounts of information in an efficient and effective manner
oGoing with your gut intuitions
Things people store away from their conscious because they threaten the persons well-
being
Repression: Freud’s concept for the process of casting thoughts, memories, feelings, and
conflicts out of consciousness, rendering them unremembered
Individual differences in repressiveness constitute an important feature of personality
Repressors: as operationalized in research, individuals who show low levels of anxiety
but high levels of defensiveness. Research suggests that repressors have less access than
do other people to negative emotional memories about the self
Repression involves inaccessibility to negative memories
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 7 Motives and Goals: What Do We Want in Life? Motivation: a term used to denote the forces and factors, usually viewed as residing within the person that energizes and direct behaviour. Common motivational ideas in personality psychology include wants, desires, needs, goals, strivings, projects, and tasks. Human behaviour is driven by wants and motivation is referred to the movement What gets people moving? Eric klinger animals go out to get the things they need or want in order to survive (much like humans) Look at characteristic adaptations that define a particular human life Characteristic Adaptations: more specific and psychological individuality that are contextualized in time, place, or social role o Make up level 2 of psychology o Motives and goals are one class of characteristic adaptations o People want things and they act upon it THE PSYCHOANALYTIC VIEW Sigmund Freud th o Most influential psychologist in 20 century o Prime inventor of psychoanalysis o Psychoanalysis: a general term for the approach to psychology pioneered by Freud and others who tend to focus on the unconscious determinants of behaviour, intrapsychic conflict, and instinctual drives concerning sexuality and aggression. The term also denotes the process of engaging in psychotherapy from a psychoanalytic standpoint o Inhibitions, repressed memories, the Oedipus complex and Freudian slips o The heart of psychoanalytic view of personality s Freuds theory of motivation Four basic propositions: 1) determinism 2) drive 3) conflict 4) unconscious www.notesolution.com Determinism forces over which we have little control determine all human behaviour and experience Drive these forces exist within us and they can be traced back to primitive drives or instincts and most important drives are sexuality and aggression Conflict the forces that determine all our behaviour and experience are in perpetual conflict with one another, which causes anxiety Unconscious we do not know what those farces that determine our behaviour and those conflicts in our lives are outside of our consciousness they are unconscious to us o Two drives 1) sexual and all other life instincts (this group of instincts is sometimes termed Eros) 2) aggression and all other death instincts (sometimes grouped under the name of Thanatos) Life instincts: Freud concept for a group of instincts serving sexual reproduction and survival Death instincts: Freuds concept for a group of instinctual drives assumed to motivate the person toward behaviour and experience promoting ones own death and destruction or aggression toward others THE UNCONSCIOUS Unconscious: the state of being outside of awareness. For Freud, the unconscious is a shadowy realm of the mind wherein reside repressed thoughts, feelings, memories, conflicts, and the like. Analogy of tip of the iceberg most of the iceberg is underwater which is what is really important in human life lies beneath the surface of consciousness Started with Arthur Schopenhauer and friedrich Nietzsche who emphasized aspects of human functioning that are outside of consciousness emotional and irrational urges that are antagonistic to conscious reason Hypnotism was used to access the unconscious mind www.notesolution.com
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