Textbook Notes (381,121)
CA (168,361)
UTSC (19,305)
Psychology (10,047)
PSYB30H3 (495)
Chapter

Chapter Seven/ Lecture notes

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier

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: GOALS & STRIVING
Overview
The Legacy of David C. McClelland
Pioneer of social motivation/needs
How he introduced the idea of implicit motive of a motivational quality that is existence inside of us
but outside of our own conscious awareness
How he pioneered the study of implicit motivation in the area of need for achievement and later in
the need for power/intimacy
The Needs for Power & Intimacy
Trait x Motive Interactions
Introduction to Social Motivation
McClellands Definition of a Motive/Need:
A recurrent preference or readiness for a particular quality of experience, which energizes, directs,
and selects behaviour in certain situations
oMotive of McClelland are like a lens, a way of filtering ones experience into the kinds of
qualities that are most meaningful and relevant to you
oAll of us see the world, but all of us see the world differently. One of the lenses in which we
see the world that distinguishes my view of things from yours are the motivational preference
that I have that are different from you
Motive Conscious Intention
oSome motives are aware or known to us. Some motives we have access to
oWe can all look inside ourselves and become aware of the intentions we have and the goals
were pursuing
oMcClelland felt that there are certain motivations that were only partly accessible to
consciousness; that lie primarily outside of consciousness and that these motives play a
profound role in shaping our perception, cognition and our behaviour
oMuch of what motivates us are not motives that are consciously aware of
Motive Trait
oMotives are different from traits. Traits are the question of “what
oMotivational constructs reference questions that begin withwhy
oWhen were trying to answerwhy someone does what he/she has done, we are making
reference or seeking information about the motive underlying their behaviours. We are
assuming behaviours are purposeful and deliberate. It is motivated to a certain end.
oWhat is the motive underlying or residing behind our behaviour?
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
How do we measure something that people arent aware of
The most common measurement strategy in personality psychology is self-reports. We rely most often on the
participant to tell us about what he/she is like, what he/she wants
If the profound motives that organize and energize a persons behaviour or outside of conscious awareness,
obviously we cannot rely on self-report because people cant report on things of which they are not aware
How do we get access to those implicit/unconscious motivations?
McClellands strategy, the strategy he pioneered was to make a use of a method first introduced by Henry
Murry several decades earlier
The TAT has a very clever strategy behind it; the TAT consists of standardized sequence of cards. The cards
depict pictures, there is a scene being depicted on the card
The participant is instructed to look at the picture and then to write a story about what is going on in the
picture. They are meant to consider where the characters have come from, whats currently ongoing in the
scene and what will happen beyond the image that is depicted in the card
Participants are required to write a story in response to a series of pictures and the series of pictures is
standardized, meaning all participants sees the exact sequence of pictures in the exact same order
The notion is the pictures themselves dont have fixed story embedded in them, the picture dont tell you
what pictures to write. The pictures are inherently ambiguous. The picture is ambiguous, so you must make
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the story up on your own. The strategy is then to realize that whatever you see in the cards, whatever story
you pull out of the cards is not intrinsic to the cards, rather it is intrinsic to you
When faced with an ambiguous stimulus and when asked to make meaning of it, what we do is to rely on our
own organization of motivations, concerns, fears, and hopes. We project all of those motivations onto the
characters in the story were creating. So the characters, even though they are not literally us, are
presumably acting out the underlying hopes, fears, wishes and so on that we ourselves have either
consciously or unconsciously
The story you write, the characters you create will reflect motivational concerns that are your motivational
concerns because the cards themselves dont have motivational concepts
Subjects compose stories in response to a series of ambiguous picture cues
Story content reveals the underlying needs, conflicts, and complexes that subjectsproject onto the picture
TAT =projective test
Developing a TAT Scoring System
What we need is a rigorous set of instructions that you can take as an experimentalist to the stories that
people write and code the stories that people have written for their thematic imagery related to achievement
The more theme related to achieve that a person writes about presumably the more achievement motivation
can they have
Begin with a hypothesis, or a rough theory about the kinds of conditions, experimental conditions under
which a particular motive might be temporarily elevated
We can bring some subjects in and experimentally subject them to a set of conditions that will
temporarily raise their level of achievement motivation, that will temporarily put achievement on
their mind
One hypothesis McClelland has was, he brought groups of participants in and he gave all of them a
battery of cognitive tests. He told one group of participants that the cognitive tests were to assess
their general intelligence and their leadership potentials, he then asked them to write a series of
stories based on the sequence of cards. This group of participants had temporarily aroused within
them achievement motivation, knowledge that their performances on this cognitive battery was going
to be revelling of their intelligence and leadership should instil in them a motivation to achieve
He took another group of participants who were in the neutral conditions, took the same battery of
cognitive test but told these participants that these tests will not reveal anything about you and your
intelligence. They dont have a motive of experimentally aroused
What distinguishes from the stories that motivated participants writes and what the neutral group
of participants?
The identification of themes allows you to build a scoring system because then you want to be on the
look out for those themes when you go on scoring for other individuals
Experimentally aroused the motive, it is called a motive arousal condition. You will compare the stories that
people write under those conditions to the stories that people write under neutral testing conditions
You wont rely on one single experimental manipulation to temporarily arouse the motive, you will rely on
many of the different arousal conditions
If one person shows more themes relevant to achievement than other individuals do, that implies that
individual has a higher resting level of achievement motivation, that individual has a greater degree of
concern or investment in achievement motivation relative to other motives
First, determine what themes distinguish the stories written under motive arousal conditions from those
written under neutral testing conditions. Use several motive arousal conditions as part of this process.
Then, use those themes as part of a scoring system to assess the motivation of individuals. Assume that
those individuals who show more frequent thematic imagery have a higher baseline level for that specific
motive.
Criticisms of the TAT
Poor reliability
There is little internal consistency
In one story participant show a high achievement motivation, however when asked to write another
story, they may not show high level of motive
Reliability puts a ceiling on validity
If an instrument has a poor reliability, its going to be very hard to show that instrument will predict
anything significant
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Description
: GOALS & STRIVING Overview The Legacy of David C. McClelland Pioneer of social motivationneeds How he introduced the idea of implicit motive of a motivational quality that is existence inside of us but outside of our own conscious awareness How he pioneered the study of implicit motivation in the area of need for achievement and later in the need for powerintimacy The Needs for Power & Intimacy Trait x Motive Interactions Introduction to Social Motivation McClellands Definition of a MotiveNeed: A recurrent preference or readiness for a particular quality of experience, which energizes, directs, and selects behaviour in certain situations o Motive of McClelland are like a lens, a way of filtering ones experience into the kinds of qualities that are most meaningful and relevant to you o All of us see the world, but all of us see the world differently. One of the lenses in which we see the world that distinguishes my view of things from yours are the motivational preference that I have that are different from you Motive Conscious Intention o Some motives are aware or known to us. Some motives we have access to o We can all look inside ourselves and become aware of the intentions we have and the goals were pursuing o McClelland felt that there are certain motivations that were only partly accessible to consciousness; that lie primarily outside of consciousness and that these motives play a profound role in shaping our perception, cognition and our behaviour o Much of what motivates us are not motives that are consciously aware of Motive Trait o Motives are different from traits. Traits are the question of what o Motivational constructs reference questions that begin with why o When were trying to answer why someone does what heshe has done, we are making reference or seeking information about the motive underlying their behaviours. We are assuming behaviours are purposeful and deliberate. It is motivated to a certain end. o What is the motive underlying or residing behind our behaviour? Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) How do we measure something that people arent aware of The most common measurement strategy in personality psychology is self-reports. We rely most often on the participant to tell us about what heshe is like, what heshe wants If the profound motives that organize and energize a persons behaviour or outside of conscious awareness, obviously we cannot rely on self-report because people cant report on things of which they are not aware How do we get access to those implicitunconscious motivations? McClellands strategy, the strategy he pioneered was to make a use of a method first introduced by Henry Murry several decades earlier The TAT has a very clever strategy behind it; the TAT consists of standardized sequence of cards. The cards depict pictures, there is a scene being depicted on the card The participant is instructed to look at the picture and then to write a story about what is going on in the picture. They are meant to consider where the characters have come from, whats currently ongoing in the scene and what will happen beyond the image that is depicted in the card Participants are required to write a story in response to a series of pictures and the series of pictures is standardized, meaning all participants sees the exact sequence of pictures in the exact same order The notion is the pictures themselves dont have fixed story embedded in them, the picture dont tell you what pictures to write. The pictures are inherently ambiguous. The picture is ambiguous, so you must make www.notesolution.com
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