Textbook Notes (381,228)
CA (168,426)
UTSC (19,325)
Psychology (10,054)
PSYB30H3 (495)
Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Notes

13 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier

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Chapter 10: Life Scripts, Life StoriesPSYB30
Jerome Johnson was African-American who was assigned to be Martin Luther King
Jr.s bodyguard
oHe had considered quitting the police force because blacks werent being
promoted, but MLK told him not to give up
oHis stories are filled with overcoming adversity (racial, monetary, etc.)
Traits, motivations, development, dont completely explain Johnsons life, and not
what it mean to him
Modern world wants people to have identity and meaning in life
We make a life by making a story, and they become part of us
3 levels of personality:
oLevel 1 dispositional outline (traits)
oLevel 2 characteristic adaptations (motivations, cognition, development)
oLevel 3 life stories
Tell us what overall meaning of life might be
THE MEANING OF STORIES
THE NARRATING MIND
We are storytellers by nature
Stories are subjective, let us draw meaning
Consciousness is mentally taking the position of narrator
Bruner said human beings evolved to interpret personal experiences in terms of
stories
Bruners 2 ways of understanding world:
oParadigmatic mode: Understand experience using logic, proof and
empirical observation
We want to predict and control reality
Look for cause and effect, exemplified by scientists
www.notesolution.com
Chapter 10: Life Scripts, Life StoriesPSYB30
oNarrative mode: Tendency to make sense of experience through stories
Things arent explained by physical or logical causes
Deals with human wants, needs and goals
Tells story of human actor wanting to do something over time
Stories try to say more than they mean, have multiple meanings, paradigmatic mode
doesnt try to say more than they mean (clear and precise)
HEALING AND INTEGRATION
Stories entertain and teach, integrate and heal (psychological stress)
Writing about oneself can help us heal, grow and integrate different parts of our
lives
Psychotherapy attempts to help us rewrite, revise and make sense of our lives
through story
Pennebaker et al. have studied how life-storytelling can have positive effect on coping
and mental health
oTold participants to write about traumatic life event, found that many were
depressed during and after writing, but found it valuable
o*Pennebaker and Beall (1986) found that people that wrote about facts of
trauma and the emotions that were associated with it had the best health
during a 6 month period
Telling full life story of stressful experience, and feelings about it may
enhance health
Just reporting facts or emotions themselves didnt really help
There is some evidence that writing about deeply traumatic events has positive
physiological effects
oPennebaker argues that inhibiting feels and thoughts about negative events
takes physiological toll
Storytelling may help us let go of trauma
Degree of negative emotion expressed and extent trauma is made into well-formed
story is how disclosure reduces physiological arousal and obsessive thought
www.notesolution.com
Chapter 10: Life Scripts, Life StoriesPSYB30
People that improved kept an organized story and were optimistic
FEELING AND STORY: TOMKINS SCRIPT THEORY
Tomkins was the first psychologist to develop a broad theory of personality centered
on stories
Believed affect was the primary motivator of human behaviour
oNot drives (Freud) or needs (Murray)
oAffect: human emotion
He believed affect amplifies drives
Proposed 10 primary affects
Face is considered organ of emotion
AFFECTS
For Tomkins, primary emotions are enjoyment, surprise, distress, anger, disgust,
fear/anxiety, sadness, shame and guilt
oFirst two are positive, surprise can be positive/negative/neutral, and last 7
are negative
Each primary emotion feels different (has different reaction), and each ahs specific
facial response
oFeedback from face to brain allows us to feel emotion
Some facial expressions appear to be innate expressions of primary emotions
oResearch suggests different cultures suggest high agreement in translating
facial expressions to emotions
oElectrical activity in face is the same for emotions, regardless of facial
expression displayed
Display rules: Rules that say what emotions are appropriate in certain situations
oe.g. In American culture its more normal for women to cry in sadness than
men
Emotions can be distinguished in their developmental course
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 10: Life Scripts, Life Stories PSYB30 Jerome Johnson was African-American who was assigned to be Martin Luther King Jr.s bodyguard o He had considered quitting the police force because blacks werent being promoted, but MLK told him not to give up o His stories are filled with overcoming adversity (racial, monetary, etc.) Traits, motivations, development, dont completely explain Johnsons life, and not what it mean to him Modern world wants people to have identity and meaning in life We make a life by making a story, and they become part of us 3 levels of personality: o Level 1 dispositional outline (traits) o Level 2 characteristic adaptations (motivations, cognition, development) o Level 3 life stories Tell us what overall meaning of life might be THE MEANING OF STORIES THE NARRATING MIND We are storytellers by nature Stories are subjective, let us draw meaning Consciousness is mentally taking the position of narrator Bruner said human beings evolved to interpret personal experiences in terms of stories Bruners 2 ways of understanding world: o Paradigmatic mode: Understand experience using logic, proof and empirical observation We want to predict and control reality Look for cause and effect, exemplified by scientists www.notesolution.comChapter 10: Life Scripts, Life Stories PSYB30 o Narrative mode: Tendency to make sense of experience through stories Things arent explained by physical or logical causes Deals with human wants, needs and goals Tells story of human actor wanting to do something over time Stories try to say more than they mean, have multiple meanings, paradigmatic mode doesnt try to say more than they mean (clear and precise) HEALING AND INTEGRATION Stories entertain and teach, integrate and heal (psychological stress) Writing about oneself can help us heal, grow and integrate different parts of our lives Psychotherapy attempts to help us rewrite, revise and make sense of our lives through story Pennebaker et al. have studied how life-storytelling can have positive effect on coping and mental health o Told participants to write about traumatic life event, found that many were depressed during and after writing, but found it valuable o *Pennebaker and Beall (1986) found that people that wrote about facts of trauma and the emotions that were associated with it had the best health during a 6 month period Telling full life story of stressful experience, and feelings about it may enhance health Just reporting facts or emotions themselves didnt really help There is some evidence that writing about deeply traumatic events has positive physiological effects o Pennebaker argues that inhibiting feels and thoughts about negative events takes physiological toll Storytelling may help us let go of trauma Degree of negative emotion expressed and extent trauma is made into well-formed story is how disclosure reduces physiological arousal and obsessive thought www.notesolution.com
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