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PSYB30 Lecture notes, Lec 12 - 17

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier

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PSYB30 Personality lectures
LECTURE 12: Chapter 7 – Goals & Strivings
Characteristic Adaptations (Motivational, cognitive, and developmental constructs)
David C. McClelland – pioneered the study of many motivations/needs
A recurrent preference of readiness for a particular quality of experience, which energizes, directs, and selects
behaviour in certain situations.
oEveryone sees the world differently one of the reasons for this is that we have different motivational
preferences from each other
Motive IS NOT a conscious intention. Motive IS NOT a trait.
oTraits address the question of whatwhat behaviour does one typically show? What feelings?
oMotivational constructs address the question of why” why someone does what they do what is the
motive underlying our behaviour?
oWe are aware of some motives, but McClelland thinks there are some motivations that are only partially
accessible to consciousness (that shape perception/cognition/behaviour).
Since motive is not necessarily conscious, how do you measure something we are not aware of?
oWe rely most often on self-report, but people cannot report on things they are not aware of McClelland
made use of method first developed by Henry Murray, the Thematic Apperception Test, TAT
TAT subjects compose stories in response to a series of ambiguous picture cues (ex, man and woman sitting by
the river). Participant is instructed to look at the picture and then write a story in response to the series of pictures
(the pictures are standardized – all participants see the same pictures in the same order)
oNotion is that the pictures do not imply a story, so you must make up a story on your own. Whatever you
see in the cards is not intrinsic to the card, it is intrinsic to you story content reveals the underlying
needs, conflicts, and complexes that subjects project onto the picture
oTAT is a projective test (you are projecting your reasoning)
McClelland began his career interested in the achievement motive
oBelieved that the need for achievement is an implicit motive (we are only partially conscious of it),
therefore methods such as the TAT must be used to measure it
oTo do this, you must have a scoring system to code the stories that people create to themes of motivation
First determine what themes distinguish the stories written under motive arousal conditions from
those written under neutral testing conditions. Use several motive arousal conditions as part of
this process.
Then use those themes as part of a scoring system to assess the motivation of individuals.
Assume that those individuals who show more frequent thematic imagery has a higher baseline
level for that specific motive.
oMcClelland had two groups of participantsmade them take the tests, and addressed one group (aroused)
telling them that their performance would reveal their intelligence in leadership; the second group
(neutral) did not receive this message. Premise is that the aroused group will score higher for achievement
motivation
Criticisms of the TAT:
oPoor reliability – asking participants to tell story after story makes for poor internal consistency
Reliability is important because it puts a ceiling on validity
oPoor criterion validity – some say that the TAT inconsistently predicts the things it should predict
www.notesolution.com
oPoor convergent validity with questionnaire measures of motives, which demonstrate greater reliability
and criterion validity (self report and implicit measures may have low correlation, McClelland argues that
that isnt a problem, because implicit measures are those we are unaware of though others see this as a
concern)
n Ach (need for achievement) a recurrent concern with doing things better and with surpassing standards of
excellencebuilding a better mousetrap”
oAchievement imagery – a character in the story wants to perform better either by:
Being involved in a long-term achievement project
Meeting an internal standard of excellence
Outperforming someone else
Doing something unique
oPredicts highly in the career of business/entrepreneurship
High n Ach in managers at their time of entry into AT&T predicted promotion to Level 3 after 16
years, but not to Level 4 (manager-level)
n Pow(need for power)recurrent concerns with having impact, control or influence on another person, a group
of persons or the world at largeNo press is bad pressthere is no distinction between good/bad power
oPower imagery – a character in the story wants to have impact or influence by:
Controlling others
Taking strong, forceful actions,
Giving unsolicited (not asked for) help or advice to others
Attempting to impress, persuade or prove a point
oPredicts highly to careers in the ministry, journalism, psychology/psychiatry, politics
Power motivation suggests that being drawn to politics also holds that you are successful
Correlations have been made between n Pow in inaugural addresses and performance as a
president. Criticisms are that presidents have speech-writers, but realistically the ideals and final
word released reflect the presidents words
n Aff (need for affiliation) recurrent concerns with establishing, maintaining, or restoring a positive affective
relationship with another person or group of persons
oAffiliation imagery – character in story wants to establish, maintain, or restore friendly relationships by:
Expressing warm, positive or intimate feelings
Expressing sadness about separation
Affiliative, companiote activities
Nurturant acts
oFirst concern affiliation motivation scoring system suffered from poor reliability in comparison to
achievement/power
oSecond concern – need for affiliation became better characterised as affiliation anxiety/rejection anxiety –
this was not the original intent of McClelland, so later research conducted alongside his student Dan
McAdams allowed him to revise it into intimacy:
n Intimacy (need for intimacy) recurrent concerns with experiencing warmth and closeness in personal
relationshipsAll you need is love”they reformulated the definition and stripped the anxiety aspect
oIntimacy predicts friendship – shown in McAdams study (1984)n Int & Friendship
Invited 105 college students to write TAT stories and describe 10 friendship episodes during the
previous two weeks see slides for results we see that people high in the need for power are
much more sociable than those who are low in this need (they associate with larger groups of
www.notesolution.com
people so they can dominate). People high in the need for intimacy approach social interactions
differently, associate with a smaller group to better establish intimacy
oPeople with high intimacy motivation tend to succeed in psychology/psychiatry
David Winter, John, Stewart, et al. (1998)Traits & Motives
Established the difference between motives and traits (motives being fundamental goals or desires; traits being
stylistic consistencies in behaviour)
Once a motive is established, there are many ways of going about achieving that goal once traits become a
factor, some of those options seem more appealing/likely than others
Traits channel the expression of motives (goal-directed behaviours) in ways that are consistent with these
mechanismsthey direct the flow of ones motivations
The Channeling Hypothesis
Traits and social motives interact in the prediction of behaviour and life outcomes
The extent to which a social motive (affiliation) predicts behaviour or life outcomes varies across levels of a trait
(introverted vs extraverted)
Conducted study between two womens liberal arts collegesMills (California), Radcliffe (Massachusetts)
The Mills Sample (CA)
oSample of women from the graduating classes of 1958 and 1960
oAt age 21 they completed the TAT (their motivation)
oAt age 43 they completed the CPI (their level of extraversion)
oN = 51 women
oQuestion – to what extent can we predict the life outcomes of these women knowing their motivations and
their traits?
The Radcliffe Sample (MA)
oSample of women from the graduating class of 1964
oAt age 18 they completed TAT
oAt age 18 they completed CPI
oN = 89 women
Found that there is a clear linear relationship between volunteerism and affiliation, but the direction of this
relationship changes as a function of your traits (the more likely you are to affiliate, the more likely you are to go
outside of the home to build relationships volunteerism; the reverse is true for introversion they invest time in
the home)
Similar pattern found in role combination the likelihood of a woman being a homemaker as well as something
else (to what extent does she combine homemaker with another occupational role). Extroverted women went
about satisfying their affiliation motives outside of the home ironically, introverted women have low affiliation
satisfaction and result in lower martial satisfaction and higher divorce rate
LECTURE 13: Chapter 8 – Self-Determination, The Self & Social Cognition
Humanistic approaches to psychology
Psychology is dominated by three views in the history of psychology – psychoanalysis (darker view of humanity),
behaviourism (neutral statewe are neither good nor bad), humanistic view (optimistic view humans are good,
we all come into the world with potential and are designed to realize these potentials)
www.notesolution.com

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Description
PSYB30 Personality lectures LECTURE 12: Chapter 7 Goals & Strivings Characteristic Adaptations (Motivational, cognitive, and developmental constructs) David C. McClelland pioneered the study of many motivationsneeds A recurrent preference of readiness for a particular quality of experience, which energizes, directs, and selects behaviour in certain situations. o Everyone sees the world differently one of the reasons for this is that we have different motivational preferences from each other Motive IS NOT a conscious intention. Motive IS NOT a trait. o Traits address the question of what what behaviour does one typically show? What feelings? o Motivational constructs address the question of why why someone does what they do what is the motive underlying our behaviour? o We are aware of some motives, but McClelland thinks there are some motivations that are only partially accessible to consciousness (that shape perceptioncognitionbehaviour). Since motive is not necessarily conscious, how do you measure something we are not aware of? o We rely most often on self-report, but people cannot report on things they are not aware of McClelland made use of method first developed by Henry Murray, the Thematic Apperception Test, TAT TAT subjects compose stories in response to a series of ambiguous picture cues (ex, man and woman sitting by the river). Participant is instructed to look at the picture and then write a story in response to the series of pictures (the pictures are standardized all participants see the same pictures in the same order) o Notion is that the pictures do not imply a story, so you must make up a story on your own. Whatever you see in the cards is not intrinsic to the card, it is intrinsic to you story content reveals the underlying needs, conflicts, and complexes that subjects project onto the picture o TAT is a projective test (you are projecting your reasoning) McClelland began his career interested in the achievement motive o Believed that the need for achievement is an implicit motive (we are only partially conscious of it), therefore methods such as the TAT must be used to measure it o To do this, you must have a scoring system to code the stories that people create to themes of motivation First determine what themes distinguish the stories written under motive arousal conditions from those written under neutral testing conditions. Use several motive arousal conditions as part of this process. Then use those themes as part of a scoring system to assess the motivation of individuals. Assume that those individuals who show more frequent thematic imagery has a higher baseline level for that specific motive. o McClelland had two groups of participants made them take the tests, and addressed one group (aroused) telling them that their performance would reveal their intelligence in leadership; the second group (neutral) did not receive this message. Premise is that the aroused group will score higher for achievement motivation Criticisms of the TAT: o Poor reliability asking participants to tell story after story makes for poor internal consistency Reliability is important because it puts a ceiling on validity o Poor criterion validity some say that the TAT inconsistently predicts the things it should predict www.notesolution.com o Poor convergent validity with questionnaire measures of motives, which demonstrate greater reliability and criterion validity (self report and implicit measures may have low correlation, McClelland argues that that isnt a problem, because implicit measures are those we are unaware of though others see this as a concern) n Ach (need for achievement) a recurrent concern with doing things better and with surpassing standards of excellence building a better mousetrap o Achievement imagery a character in the story wants to perform better either by: Being involved in a long-term achievement project Meeting an internal standard of excellence Outperforming someone else Doing something unique o Predicts highly in the career of businessentrepreneurship High n Ach in managers at their time of entry into AT&T predicted promotion to Level 3 after 16 years, but not to Level 4 (manager-level) n Pow (need for power) recurrent concerns with having impact, control or influence on another person, a group of persons or the world at large No press is bad press there is no distinction between goodbad power o Power imagery a character in the story wants to have impact or influence by: Controlling others Taking strong, forceful actions, Giving unsolicited (not asked for) help or advice to others Attempting to impress, persuade or prove a point o Predicts highly to careers in the ministry, journalism, psychologypsychiatry, politics Power motivation suggests that being drawn to politics also holds that you are successful Correlations have been made between n Pow in inaugural addresses and performance as a president. Criticisms are that presidents have speech-writers, but realistically the ideals and final word released reflect the presidents words n Aff (need for affiliation) recurrent concerns with establishing, maintaining, or restoring a positive affective relationship with another person or group of persons o Affiliation imagery character in story wants to establish, maintain, or restore friendly relationships by: Expressing warm, positive or intimate feelings Expressing sadness about separation Affiliative, companiote activities Nurturant acts o First concern affiliation motivation scoring system suffered from poor reliability in comparison to achievementpower o Second concern need for affiliation became better characterised as affiliation anxietyrejection anxiety this was not the original intent of McClelland, so later research conducted alongside his student Dan McAdams allowed him to revise it into intimacy: n Intimacy (need for intimacy) recurrent concerns with experiencing warmth and closeness in personal relationships All you need is love they reformulated the definition and stripped the anxiety aspect o Intimacy predicts friendship shown in McAdams study (1984) n Int & Friendship Invited 105 college students to write TAT stories and describe 10 friendship episodes during the previous two weeks see slides for results we see that people high in the need for power are much more sociable than those who are low in this need (they associate with larger groups of www.notesolution.com
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