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Chapter 8

chapter 8 detailed noted

14 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier

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Chapter 8: Self and Other: Social-Cognitive Aspects of Personality
QUESTION ANSWER
Define social-cognitive approaches to
personalityTheories and conceptions of personality that
emphasize the extent to which human
beings are information-processing systems
who use schemas, beliefs, values,
expectancies, and other cognitive constructs
to guide their behaviour in the social world
*Cognition influence social behaviour , and
social behaviour influences cognition*
What is one of the most important inputs in
human life? Our perceptions and impressions of others,
which shape and are shaped by our
perceptions and impressions of ourselves
What book did George Kelly write that took
personality psychology by storm?The Psychology of Personal Construct 
1955
Explain George Kellys theoryA person is motivated to predict or
anticipate what will happen to him or her
What moves people to act is their
desire to know what the world has
in store for them
The person is like a scientist,
seeking to predict and control
SEE TABLE 8.1 PG. 305
According to Kelly, each of us classifies his
or her world by developing
. Define this term
Personal Construct: a characteristic way of
construing how some things are alike an
some things are different from each other
Every construct is bipolar (how 2
things are alike and how things
are different from a third thing)
Constructs are more like
hypotheses to be tested than
Explain Kellys idea of construct systems People best understood in terms of
their own construct systems 
each person develops his or her
own construct system that
contains a number of constructs
organized into a hierarchy
Meaning that some constructs
are superordinal
(encompassing many other
constructs) and others are
subordinal (being
E.g. Subordinal construct of
www.notesolution.com
helpful/unhelpful may be
encompassed by the more general
superordinal construct of
friendly/unfriendly
Every persons construct system in
unique, which means that everybody
divides up subjective experiences in
slightly different ways
What is range of convenience? Kellys concept of the extent to which a given
personal construct is likely to guide a
persons interpretation of events and the
behaviour he or she is likely to show
What is meant by a construct being
permeable or not being permeable? Permeable construct is open to
modification and the introduction
of new elements a person who
is open-minded
A non permeable construct is
unable to modify constructs 
rigid and inflexible
What is Kellys view on anxiety?When we confront inexplicable
events in the world for which our
construct system does not seem
to be prepared, we experience
anxiety
Anxiety is a fear of the unknown
What is core goal structure and its
relation to guilt?The construction a person has of who he
or she is in relation to significant people,
such as parents it is embedded in a
persons construct system
Guilt is a perception of ones
dislodgement from his core role
structure
What is the Role Construct Repertory
Test (Rep Test)?Personality assessment procedure
designed by Kelly to explore personal
constructs in peoples lives
How did Kelly define a role? An understanding or expectation of what
particular people in a persons life do
What is said about people who use many
different kinds of constructs and those
who do not?
People who use many = Manifest higher
levels of cognitive complexity
People who do not use many = view the
world in a simpler, more global construct
system
What is said about people who have
similar construct systems as their
friends?
These people are more closer and
remain close friends for longer periods of
time
What was Duck and Spencers study
about and what did they conclude? They obtained personal construct
measures for female college
freshman at the beginning of the
www.notesolution.com
school year these women were
l assigned to the same residence
hall they were unacquainted
Those women who shared similar
construct were most likely to
become friends over the course of
the school year
What are cognitive styles?Characteristics and typically preferred
modes of processing information, such
as field independence-dependence and
integrative complexity
What are the two kinds of cognitive
styles?1) Field independence/field
dependence (differences in
perceiving the world)
2) Integrative complexity (differences
in reasoning or interpreting the
world)
What did Solomon Asch and Herman A.
Witkin study in the 1940s?How people decide whether and
object is perpendicular to the
ground or tilted to some degree
They asked people sitting in tilted
chairs placed in a custom-built
tilted room to adjust their chairs
until they felt that they were in an
upright position
People who use the room as the
reference for their adjustment
exhibited a field-dependent style for
solving the problem
People who bypass the field and
make their perception and
judgment according to inner cues
show a field-independent style
Define field-dependent/ field-independent
stylesA dimension of cognitive style ranging from
highly analytical and differentiated
processing of info (field-
independence=internal) to highly contextual
and global processing (field-
dependence=external)
*Each pole has benefits and liabilities,
therefore, neither end is better most
people fall in the middle of the continuum*
What is the Embedded Figures Test?A test of field independence/dependence in
which a person attempts to find forms
hidden in an embedding field
Why are people who are field independent,
good at camouflage tasks?Able to restructure the perceptual
field
Reshape the environment
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 8: Self and Other: Social-Cognitive Aspects of Personality QUESTION ANSWER Define social-cognitive approaches to Theories and conceptions of personality that personality emphasize the extent to which human beings are information-processing systems who use schemas, beliefs, values, expectancies, and other cognitive constructs to guide their behaviour in the social world *Cognition influence social behaviour , and social behaviour influences cognition* What is one of the most important inputs in Our perceptions and impressions of others, human life? which shape and are shaped by our perceptions and impressions of ourselves What book did George Kelly write that took The Psychology of Personal Construct personality psychology by storm? 1955 Explain George Kellys theory A person is motivated to predict or anticipate what will happen to him or her What moves people to act is their desire to know what the world has in store for them The person is like a scientist, seeking to predict and control SEE TABLE 8.1 PG. 305 According to Kelly, each of us classifies hisPersonal Construct: a characteristic way of construing how some things are alike an or her world by developing some things are different from each other . Define this term Every construct is bipolar (how 2 things are alike and how things are different from a third thing) Constructs are more like hypotheses to be tested than Explain Kellys idea of construct systems People best understood in terms of their own construct systems each person develops his or her own construct system that contains a number of constructs organized into a hierarchy Meaning that some constructs are superordinal (encompassing many other constructs) and others are subordinal (being E.g. Subordinal construct of www.notesolution.com helpfulunhelpful may be encompassed by the more general superordinal construct of Every persons construct system in unique, which means that everybody divides up subjective experiences in slightly different ways What is range of convenience? Kellys concept of the extent to which a given personal construct is likely to guide a persons interpretation of events and the behaviour he or she is likely to show What is meant by a construct being Permeable construct is open to permeable or not being permeable? modification and the introduction of new elements a person who is open-minded A non permeable construct is unable to modify constructs rigid and inflexible What is Kellys view on anxiety? When we confront inexplicable events in the world for which our construct system does not seem to be prepared, we experience Anxiety is a fear of the unknown What is core goal structure and its The construction a person has of who he relation to guilt? or she is in relation to significant people, such as parents it is embedded in a persons construct system Guilt is a perception of ones dislodgement from his core role structure What is the Role Construct Repertory Personality assessment procedure Test (Rep Test)? designed by Kelly to explore personal constructs in peoples lives How did Kelly define a role? An understanding or expectation of what particular people in a persons life do What is said about people who use many People who use many = Manifest higher different kinds of constructs and those levels of cognitive complexity who do not? People who do not use many = view the world in a simpler, more global construct system What is said about people who have These people are more closer and similar construct systems as their remain close friends for longer periods of What was Duck and Spencers study time They obtained personal construct about and what did they conclude? measures for female college freshman at the beginning of the www.notesolution.com
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