Chapter 3 Notes

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Published on 14 May 2011
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB32H3
CHAPTER 3
Brief History of classification
-By end of 19th century, when medicine was becoming very civilized, as other sciences
obtained classifications it was clear that classifications in abnormal psychology would be
hard to obtain.
-Early classification schemes failed due to lack of consistency among different
psychological organizations
Development of WHO and DSM systems
-WHO tried to incorporate abnormal psychology into their international list of causes of
death.
-WHO had a listing of the diagnostic categories but the actual behaviour or symptoms
were not specified.
-DSM was first made in 1952 and in following years different versions came out. By 1980
DSM-III was released. In 1994 DSM-IV.
The Diagnostic System of the American Psychiatric Association
Five Dimensions of Classification
Axis I – All diagnostic categories except personality disorders and mental retardation.
Axis II – Personality disorders and mental retardation.
Axis III – General medical conditions.
Axis IV – Psychological and environmental problems.
Axis V – Current level of functioning.
-This system forces the diagnostician to consider a wide range of information.
-Most ppl consult a health professional for an axis I disorder, but prior to their onset may
have had axis II disorder such as dependant personality disorder
Diagnostic Categories
Disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood or adolescence
-Separation Anxiety Disorder: excessive anxiety about being away from parents or home
-Conduct Disorder: repeatedly violate social norms and rules
-ADHD: difficulty sustaining attention and unable to control their activity when the
situation calls for it.
-Mental Retardation (Axis II): subnormal intellect functioning and defecits in adaptive
functioning
-Pervaise developmental disorders: Includes Autistic disorder; individual has problems in
acquiring communication skills and deficits in relating to other people.
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-Learning Disorder: delays in acquisition of speech, reading, arithmetic, and writing skills
Substance Related Disorders
-When a persons social or occupational functions is suffering due to change of behaviour
caused by ingesting something like alcohol, opiates, cocaine etc.
-Stopping usage of these drugs can lead to axis I disorders such as mood/anxiety disorders
Schizophrenia
-contact with reality is faulty
-Language/communication disordered and may shift from 1 subject to next
-Experience delusions like implanted thoughts and plagued by hallucinations such as
hearing voices
-Emotions are blunted, flattened or inappropriate, relationships and work ability show
marked deterioration
Mood Disorders
-Diagnosis applied to those whose moods are extremely high or low
-Major Depressive disorder: deeply sad or discouraged. Likey to lose weight/energy and
have suicidal thoughts
-Mania: euphoric, irritable, more active than usual, very high self esteem
-Bipolar Disorder: episodes of mania or both mania and depression
Anxiety Disorders
-These disorders have some sort of irrational fear as their main disturbance
-Phobias: fear of an object so large that it is avoided, disrupting lives.
-Panic Disorder: person is subject to sudden but brief attacks of intense apprehension. So
upsetting person may shake, feel dizzy or have trouble breathing. May also be
accompanied by Agoraphobia.
-Generalized Anxiety Disorder: fear/worry is pervasive, constant and uncontrollable.
Worry constantly, feel on edge and are easily tired.
-Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Subject to persistant obsessions (thought or idea) or
compulsions (urge to perform stereotyped act). Attempts to resist compulsions create so
much tension that the person yields.
-Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: anxiety and emotional numbness after traumatic
experience. Dreams at night, find it hard to concentrate and feel detatched from others.
-Acute Stress Disorder: Similar to PTSD but symptoms do not last long.
Somatoform Disorders
-These physical symptoms seem to have no physiological cause, but have a psychological
purpose.
-Somatization Disorder: these people have history of physical complaints for which they
seek medication or a doctor
-Conversion Disorder: report loss of motor/sensory function, loss of sensation or
blindness.
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Document Summary

By end of 19th century, when medicine was becoming very civilized, as other sciences obtained classifications it was clear that classifications in abnormal psychology would be hard to obtain. Early classification schemes failed due to lack of consistency among different psychological organizations. Who tried to incorporate abnormal psychology into their international list of causes of death. Who had a listing of the diagnostic categories but the actual behaviour or symptoms were not specified. Dsm was first made in 1952 and in following years different versions came out. The diagnostic system of the american psychiatric association. Axis i all diagnostic categories except personality disorders and mental retardation. Axis ii personality disorders and mental retardation. This system forces the diagnostician to consider a wide range of information. Most ppl consult a health professional for an axis i disorder, but prior to their onset may have had axis ii disorder such as dependant personality disorder.