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PSYB32H3 (1,000)
Chapter 14

Chapter 14 Notes


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Konstantine Zakzanis
Chapter
14

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Chapter 14
-Gender identity- what we feel we are
oSexual orientation- who we are attracted to
oGender identity disorder (GID) / transexualism- people who don’t feel like they belong in the gender that
they were born as
oThey may try to pass as someone from the opposite sex and by want to have their body surgically altered
to bring them in line with their gender identity
oWhen GID begins in childhood, it is associated with cross- gender behaviours such as dressing in
opposite- sex clothes, preferring opposite sex playmates and engaging in play that would usually be
considered typical of opposite sex
oAssociated with a developmental lag in achieving a sense of gender constancy or stability
oUsually recognized by a parent when child is 2-4 years old
oMore frequent in boys than in girls- cross- gender behaviour is less tolerated when exhibited by boys and
a higher threshold has to be met in order for a girl to be referred
oFactors associated with decision to seek clinical assessment: 1) belief that behaviour was no longer a
phase that child will grow out of, 2) threshold violation- wanting to cross dress in nursery school as well,
3) belief that the chikld was experiencing intense distress about being a boy or girl, 4) concerns about
potential or actual rejection by peers
oMost children with GID do not grow up to be disordered in adulthood even without professional
intervention- but many exhibit homosexual orientation
oPEOPLE WITH SCHIZO- rarely have GID, HERMAPHRODITES- have genitals of both sexes, AND
PEOPLE WITH TRANSVESTIC FETHISISM- although they dress in clothing of opposite sex, they
don’t necessarily want to Be that gender
oA mal with GID has sexual interest with men because he sees himself as a woman
oThey often get discriminated at work and stuff because they cross dress
oPeople with GID often experience anxiety and depression
o GID in childhood is linked with separation anxiety disorder
oprevalence is low- 1/30 000 in men and 1/ 100000-150, 000
Etiology
ochildren who experience a sense of innapropriateness in culturally prescribed gender role of their sex but
doesn’t experience discomfort swith their biological sex should not be considered with GID
oGID shouldn’t be considered as a mental disorder- may serve as a stigmatizing the children with GID go
on to
oGender identity disorder may be influenced by hormones – unable to shape penis and scrotum in fetal
development, and they were raised as a girl, but with puberty the male hormones started coming out and
they began to develop penis and got GID
oSex hormones taken by the mother during pregnancy can make the kids behave like members of opposite
sex and have anatomical abnormalities
oMany mother encourage cross-dressing at a young age and this its cute and take pictures, which
encourages the child to develop GID
oAttractive boys often have GID and ugly girls have GID
oBoys who are distant from their father and girls who have undergone physical or sexual abuse often get
GID
oThere is a differentce between enjoying the activities more typical to opposite sex and actually believing
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that one is of opposite sex
oOur society has low tolerance for boys who engage in activities that are typical of girls, whereas girls can
play games and dress in a manner more typical to boys and still be okay
Therapies
oBody alterations
Undergo 6 to 12 months of psychotherapy- foceses on anxiety, depression and options available
for altering their body
Some people with GID may just chose to have cosmetic surgery- remove facial hair, enlarge
breasts, other take hormones that promote breast growth and soften skin
SEX-REASSIGNMENT SURGERY- existing genitalia are altered to make them more like those
of the opposite sex
Surgery is more frequently done by men- but it has found no advantage to individual in terms of
social rehabilitation, but may for female- to male transsexuals
Good surgery depended on the person’s emotional stability, successful adaptation in new role for t
least one year before surgery, adequeate understanding of actual minitations and consequences of
surgery and psychotherapy in context of established gender identity program
Sexual responsiveness and sexual satisfaction increase dramatically in both male- female and
female- male transsexuals
Transsexuals have to often face challenges that few others will face in their lives and this
adjustment will be made without the social support from families and friends
People who focuse on gender identity vs. biological makeup say it is horrible trick that nature has
played on them- but these people seldom find that surgery makes an improvement in their lives
oAlterations of gender identity
Some people can go under behaviour therapy and teach them how to talk to the opposite sex and
watch videos of each sex and make them like the opposite sex and make fantasies, and get sexual
arousal from opposite sex through movies, and use aversion therapy to reduce attractiveness of
same sex- this really helps sometimes- makes them feel like the proper sex and lasted long
-Paraphilias
oFetishism
Involves a reliance on an inanimate object for sexual arousal- almost always male, has recurrent
and intense sexual urges toward nonliving objects called fetishes and presence of fetish is strongly
preferred or even necessary for sexual arousal to occur
Feet, shoes, sheer stockings, rubber products such as raincoats, gloves, toilet articles, fur
garments, and especially underpants are common sources of arousal for fetishists- some carry on
their fetishism bey secretly fondling, kissing, smelling, sucking, placing in their rectum or mrerely
gazing at the adored object as they masturbate- others need the partner to don the fetish as a
stimulant for intercourse
Fetishists sometimes become interested in acquiring a collection of the desired objects and they
may commit burglary week after week to add to their hoard
Attraction felt by fetishist toward obkect has compulsive quality- experienced as involuntary and
irresistible- degree of the erotic focalization- exclusive and very special status the object occupies
as a sexual stimulant that distinguishes them from ordinary attraction to an object- arousal is
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overwhelmingly strong
Usually begins in childhood or adolescence- often have other paraphilias, such as pedophilia,
sadism, and masochism
oTransvestic fetishism/ transvestism
When a man is sexually aroused by dressing in women’s clothing although he still regards himself
as a man
Cross-dressing must be associated with sexual arousal- SHOULD NOT BE CONFUSED WITH
CROSS DRESSING IN GID
Autogynephilia- man’s tendency to become sexyally aroused at the thought or image of HIMSELf
being a woman- typically associated with transvestitism
Usually begins with partial cross- dressing in childhood or adolescence
HETEROSEXUAL, ALWAYS MALES AND CROSS-DRESS EPISODICALLY, MASCULINE
IN APPEARANCE, DEMEANOUR, AND SEXUAL PREFERENCE, MANY ARE
MARRIEDM USUALLY TAKES PLACE IN PRIVATE AND KNOWN TO FEW MEMBERS
OF FAMILY- NO DISTRESS OR DISABILITY
MAY BE ACCOMPANIED BY GENDER DYSPHORIA, DISCOMFORT WITH ONE’S
ANATOMICAL SEX BUT NOT TO EXTENT FOUND IN GID
COMORBID WITH OTHER PARAPHILIAS- MASOCHISM
oPedophilia and incest
PEDOPHILIA- adults who derive sexual gratification through physical and often sexual contact
with prepubescent children unrelated to them
OFFENDER MUST BE ATLEAST 16, AND VICTIM MUST BE ATLEAST 5 YEARS
YOUNGER= victims may also be pubescent but younger than the legal age to consent to
having sex with an adult
Occurs much more frequently in MEN
Its often comorbid with anxiety and mood disorders, substance abuse and other paraphilias
Can be heterosexual or homosexual
Pedophiles use internet to acuire child pornography and contact potential victims- so those that
come out of jail are often restricted internet use
Martin Kruze got sexually abused by someone in the Maple Leaf gardens and became a sexual
abuse spokesperson and commited suicide after the dude who abused him got sentenced to 2 years
in prison
Violence is seldom a part of the molestation- most pedophiles do not physically injure their
victims, some intentionally frighten victims by killing a pet and threatening further harm if
youngster tells their parents- sometimes they will stroke child’s hair, but may also manipulate
child’s genitalia and encourage the child to manipulate his and seldom attempt intromission –
may not be discovered for weeks, months or years if they are not discovered by other adults or if
the child does not protest
A minority of pedophiles who might also be classified as sexual sadists or antisocial personalities
inflict serious bodily harm on object of their passion- viewed as child rapists and are different
from pedophiles in that they PHYSICALLY hurt children as much as sexually
Homicidal child molesters show a greater physiological response to and preference for
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