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Chapter 2

Lecture 2 - Chapter 2 (Paradigms)

Course Code
Konstantine Zakzanis

of 7
Chapter 2 - lecture 2
Exam not need to know everything in chapter. Focus knowing in book, know quite
well also in lec.notes. Chapter 2 - current paradigms
5 Paradigms through out semester. 1 paradigm more knowledgable than particular
disorder. E.g. depression CBT.
5 Paradigms
1.Biological Paradigm researcher looking at MRI. Neuroimaging
2.Psychodynamic approach
3.Humanist/existential approach on psychopathology
4.Pavlov and classical conditioning behavioral therapy
5.Aaron Beck Psychiatrist and his theory of Cognition and depression
- Basic assumptions on how we understand or treat disorder
- How to conceptualize study for patient
-Gather or interpret data assessing subject differ
Treat any kind of Psychopathology
Biological paradigm model builds itself after disease and medical paradigm
-Symptoms have biological cause or biological interplay
e.g. Runny nose virus biological markers and use investigated tool and research
techniques to determine whether or not there in biological cause.
Behavioral geneticist - genes carrier of genetic information expresses our
DNA and pass on from parents
50% from mother 50% from Father
Study of individual differences impart by difference in genetic makeup
2 types
Phenotype totality of observable behavioral characteristics. E.g. level of anxiety .
Genotype and environment job-more likely to be anxious
Genetic makeup not static even though born with it.
e.g. depression may or may not become depressed in life. But likelihood of becoming
is high because genetically predisposed.
All disorders are determined in phenotypes except if you have gene you have disease
Huntingtons disease
Family method 50-50 inherited from mom and dad First Degree relatives
2nd degree relatives 25% of genetic makeup niece or nephew
study by looking predisposition of mental disorders in a family. Prevalence rates-
e.g. schizophrenia running in family compared to a population
If a genetic predisposition to the disorder being studied is present first degree
relatives of the index cases or profanes should have the disorder at higher rate than
that found in higher population. Of kid 1% - idiographic no degree relationship
10% when one parent has schizophrenia we deduced that it is family related.
MZ (identical twins 100% genes in common) e.g. 1 of the twins have
schizophrenia the likelihood of his/her twin would have schizophrenia 50% chance
higher than 10%. Something to do with environment as well as causation of
schizophrenia if 100% has schizophrenia in 1 of the twins 50% only for his/her
twin because of environment
Adoptees siblings split up at birth raised by different parents often parents no
mental disorder because children taken away. How much genetics in environment
play a role. MZ split up at birth raised by one biological parent 1 by adoptee. Very
rare situations.
Biochemistry also important to understand.
Because of psychopharmacology to treat mental disoders have impacts to both NT
and reuptake.
Neuropsychologist/ Neuropsychiatrists / Neurologists study structure and function
of brain. Mostly 4 cortical lobe and sub cortical structures
Cortical responsible for higher order cognition
Sub cortical - movement
Frontal lobes Executive functioning. Abstract thought, planning, organizing,
insight, movement, memory retrieval, judgment
Right frontal lobe
Left frontal lobe Brocas area
Anosognosia unawareness of mental illness
Frontal lobe dementia shrink test patient block design- they eat block design
masturbate by blocks. Inappropriateness.
Issue of memory Left frontal lobe responsible for encoding.
Hippocampus Left temporal lobes consolidates learning- takes info. and store
Right frontal lobes for retrieval
Receiving sensory info.and decoding it comprehension in temporal lobes
Wernickes area.
Parietal lobes
Left parietal lobe Praxis- disorder of movement with initiation of movement.
Conceptual apraxia tooth brush and brush head.
Right parietal lobe- visual neglect. E.g. only one side of clock
Occipital lobe
Sub cortical structures responsible for movements Huntingtons and Parkinsons
Types of neuroimaging:
Structural neuroimaging: MRI
Functional neuroimaging: - blood flow - PET scan
Psychoactive drugs:
Anxiolytics treat anxiety disorders: Generalized Anxiety Disorders PTSD, Sleep
disorders, paranoid personality disorders, Borderline, OCD, Panic disorders
Antidepressants- treat Depression: Eating disorders, Substance abuse disorders,
Histrionic personality disorders, Disorder of aging, MS and Parikinsons
Co morbidity more than one illness present and often see in substance abusers
Eliminate psychotics
e.g. mostly use for Schizophrenia Sometimes in bipolar disorder klepto mood
stabilizing drugs. Sometimes OCD, sometimes to antisocial personality disorder e.g.
Paul Berdardo. Synonymous to Sociopath to certain extent.
Ritalin treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Aricept cognitive enhancer used for patient with Alzheimers disease and abused
by students sometimes
Psychoanalytic Paradigm
Psychopathology from unconscious conflicts. Cause neurosis Anxiet
Mind structure in 3 parts where conflict came from
1. Id driving basic urges in life.
b.Consumption of food and water
Work in 2 principles
Pleasure principle immediate gratification and not satisfied tension results
provoke anxiety or depressed because needs not met
Primary process thinking fantasize to bring some short term gratification to
reduce anxiety. If not fantasies throw in jail.
2. Ego works in reality principle conscious thinking
Secondary thinking decision making and thinking
-ego mediates between demands of reality and immediate gratification desires
by Id