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Chapter 11

PSYB32H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Genetic Counseling, Eugen Bleuler, Biopsychosocial Model

Course Code
Konstantine Zakzanis

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Chapter 11: Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia: psychotic disorder characterized by major
disturbances in through, emotion, and behaviour disordered thinking in
which ideas are not logically related, faulty perceptions and attention,
flat or inappropriate affect, and bizarre disturbances in motor activity
They withdraw from people and reality, often into a fantasy life of
delusions and hallucinations
Its own of the most severe psychopathologies
Prevalence of 1%
Clinical Symptoms of Schizophrenia
Disturbances in several major areas –thought, perceptions and
attention, motor behaviour; affect or emotions and life functioning
There is a lot of heterogeneity
Positive Symptoms
Positive symptoms: comprise excesses or distortions, such as
disorganized speech, hallucinations and delusions, an acute episode of
It involve the presence of a behaviour that is not apparent in most
Disorganized speech
Aka formal thought disorder
Disorganized speech: problems in organizing ideas and in speaking
so that a listener can understand
There is incoherence in conversations (not connected and hard to
Speech may also be disordered as loose associations/derailment
(difficulty sticking to one topic)
oThey may drift off in what they are saying
But disorganized speech is not a discriminator between schizophrenia
and other psychoses (like some mood disorders)
Thinking that others are plotting against you
Delusions: beliefs held contrary to reality, are common positive
Persecutory delusions are found in 65% of them
They may think their thoughts are beings stolen from them or are
being broadcasted
Hallucinations and Other disorders of Perception
They may feel depersonalized
Hallucinations: sensory experiences in the absence of any
stimulation from the environment (more auditory than visual)
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oThey hear their own thoughts spoken by another voice
oThey hear voices arguing
oHere voices commenting on their behaviour
Negative Symptoms
Negative symptoms: behavioural deficits, such as avolition, alogia,
anhedonia, flat affect and ascoiality
They tend to endure beyond an acute episode and have profound
effects on the lives of patients
Flat affect can be a side effect of antipsychotic medication
Apathy/avolition: lack of energy and seeming absence of interest or
inability to persist in what are usually routine activities
Inattentive to grooming and personal hygiene
Difficulty persistent at work, school or household chores
A negative thought disorder
Poverty of speech, sheer amount of speech is greatly reduced
Poverty in content of speech
Vague and repetitive speech
An inability to experience pleasure
They are aware of it
Flat Affect
No stimulus can elicit an emotional response
Stare vacantly, muscles of face flaccid, and eyes lifeless
Flat and toneless voice
impaired social relationships
few friends, poor social skills and little interest being with people
Schizophrenia onset is beginning in childhood
It is also said that they might not be able to recognize the emotions on
top of not being able to express it
Other Symptoms
Catatonia: several motor abnormalities
oGesture repeatedly, using peculiar and complex finger
sequences of finger, hand and arm movements
oSometimes excitement, wild flailing of the limbs
oCatatonic Immobility: patients adopt unusual postures and
maintain hem for a very long period of time (stand on one leg)
oWaxy flexibility: another person can move the patient’s limb
into strange positions that the patient will then maintain for
extended periods
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