Textbook Notes (280,000)
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Chapter

Book Notes


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Konstantine Zakzanis

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Chapter 3: CLASSIFICATION AND DIAGNOSIS
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
THE DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM OF THE AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION (DSM=IV
AND DSM-IV-TR)
DEFINITION OF MENTAL DISORDER
A clinically significant behavioural psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual and
that associated with present distress or with a significantly increased risk of suffering death , pain,
disability or an important loss of freedom.
FIVE DIMENSIONS OF CLASSIFICATION
Sweeping change is the use of multiaxial classification, whereby each individual is rather on five separate
dimensions.
Axis I. All diagnostic categories except personality disorders and mental retardation
Axis II. Personality disorders and mental retardation.
Axis III. General medication conditions
Axis IV. Psychosocial and environmental problems
Axis V. Current level of functioning
The five axes, forces the diagnostician to consider a broad range of information.
Although the remaining three axes are not needed to make the actual diagnosis, their inclusion in the
DSM indicates that factors other than a persons symptoms should be considered in an assessment so that
the persons overall life situation can be better understood.
Axis V codes psychosocial and environmental problems that the person has been experiencing and that
may be contributing to the disorder. These include occupational problems, economic problems,
interpersonal difficulties with family members, and a variety of problems in other life areas that may
influence psychological functioning.
DISORDERS USUALLY DIAGNOSED IN INFANCY, CHILDHOOD OR ADOLESCENCE
The child separation anxiety disorder has excessive anxiety about being away from home or
parents
Children with conduct disorder repeatedly violate social norms and rules
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Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder have difficulty sustaining attention and
are unable to control the activity when the situation call for it
Individuals with mental retardation show subnormal intellectual functioning and deficits in
adaptive functioning
The pervasive development disorder includes autistic disorder a severe condition in which the
individual has problems in acquiring communication skills and deficits in relating to other people
Learning disorder refer to delays in the acquisition of speech, reading, arithmetic, and writing
skills
SUBSTANCE-RELATED DISORDERS
A substance-related disorder is diagnosed when the ingestion of some substance—alcohol, opiates,
cocaine, amphetamines, and so on—has changed the behaviour enough to impair social and occupational
functioning.
These substances may also cause or contribute to development of other Axis I disorder, such as mood or
anxiety disorders.
SCHIZOPHRENIA
For individual with schizophrenia, contact with reality is faulty. Their language and communication are
disordered, and they may shift from one subject to another in ways that make them difficult to understand.
They commonly experience delusions, such as believing that thoughts that are not their own have been
placed in their heads.
MOOD DISORDERS
As the implies, these diagnoses are applied to people whose moods are extremely high or low.
In a major depressive disorder, the person is deeply sad and discouraged and is also likely to lose
weight and energy and to have suicidal thoughts and feelings of self-reproach.
The person with mania may be described as exceedingly euphoric, irritable, more active than
usual, distractible, and possessed of unrealistically high self-esteem
Bipolar disorder is diagnosed if the person experiences episodes of mania or of both mania and
depression
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ANXIETY DISORDERS
Individuals with a phobia fear an object or situation so intensely that must avoid it, even though
they know that their fear is unwarranted and unreasonable and disrupts their lives.
In panic disorder, the person is subject to sudden but brief attacks of intense apprehension, so
upsetting that he or she is likely to tremble and shake, feel dizzy, and have trouble breathing.
Panic disorder may be accompanied by agoraphobia when the person is also fearful of leaving
familiar surroundings
In people diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder, fear and apprehension are pervasive,
persistent, and uncontrollable. They worry constantly, feel guilty and edge, and are easily tired.
A person with obsessive-compulsive disorder is subject to persistent obsession or compulsions.
An obsession is a recurrent thought, idea, or image that uncontrollably dominates a persons
consciousness. A compulsion is an urge to perform a stereotyped act. With the usually impossible
purpose of wading off an impending feared situation. Attempts to resist a compulsion create so
much tension that the individual usually yields to it.
Experiencing anxiety and emotional numbness in the aftermath of a very traumatic event is called
post-traumatic stress disorder. Individuals have painful, intrusive rcollections by day and bad
dreams at night. They find it difficult to concentrate and feel detached from others and from on-
going affairs.
Acute stress disorder is similar to post-traumatic stress disorder, but the symptoms do not last long
SOMATOFORM DISORDERS
The physical symptoms of somatoform disorders have no known physiological cause but seem to serve a
psychological purpose.
People with somatisation disorder have a long history of multiple physical complaints for which
they have taken medicine or consulted doctors
People with conversion disorder report the loss of motor or sensory function, such as a paralysis,
an anaesthesia, or blindness
Individuals with pain disorder from sever and prolonged pain
Hypochondriasis is the misinterpretation of minor physical sensations as serious illness.
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