PSYB32H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Nail Polish, Alcohol Dependence, Hair Conditioner

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Published on 19 Jun 2011
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB32H3
ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY
CHPATER 12 SUBSTANCE RELATED DISORDERS
The pathological use of substances fall into 2 categories: substance abuse and substance
dependence
By DSM-IV-TR, substance dependence is characterized by 3 of the following:
The development of tolerance, indicated by either: larger doses of the substance to
produce the same effect or the effect of the drug becomes less if the usual amount is
taken
Development of withdrawal symptoms adverse physiological or physical effects
produced when a person stops taking a substance or reduces the amount ingested
The person uses more of the substance or uses it for longer than expected
The person recognizes excessive use of substance; they may try to reduce usage but
is unable to do so
Much of the persons time is spent trying to get the substance or recover from its
effect
Substance use continues despite psychological or physical problems caused or
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exacerbated by the drug
Person cuts back or completely cuts participation in many events (work, socializing
etc.) because of drug use
According to the DSM-IV-TR, substance abuse is characterized and diagnosed if one of the
following is a result from recurrent use of drugs:
Failure to fulfill major obligations (e.g. absence from work, or neglect of children)
exposure to physical dangers (e.g. operating machinery or driving under the
influence)
legal problems (e.g. arrests for disorderly conduct or traffic violations)
persistent social or interpersonal problems (e.g. argument with a spouse)
DT (Delirium Tremens): Withdrawal symptoms from alcohol
Alcohol Abuse & Dependence
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The DSM-IV-TR distinguishes between alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse
Alcohol dependence may include tolerance and withdrawal reactions. People with alcohol
dependence typically have more severe symptoms
The body becomes adapted to the alcohol and the abrupt withdrawal of the drug may cause
DTs: symptoms include anxiousness, depression, weakness, restlessness, insomnia; tremors
in muscles (face, eyelids, and tongue) elevated pulse, BP, and temperature.
In rare cases, more serious symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions may appear.
The blood alcohol levels of extreme abusers are unexpectedly low after what is considered
heavy drinking showing the body adapts to the drug and processes it more efficiently
Tolerance results from changes in the number and sensitivity of GABA or glutamate
receptors. Overtime, neural pathways adapt to the alcohol use and compensate for its
inhibitory effects. When the drinking stops, the inhibitory effects of alcohol are lost,
resulting in overexcitation
Those who are alcohol dependent have cravings that are out of control. They may be drunk
fro many days at a time and drink as much as a litre of alcohol in one sitting. The urge for
alcohol may lead them to get it from a non beverage e.g. hair tonic or nail polish remover
Alcohol abusers experience negative social and occupational effects for it but do not show
tolerance, withdrawal, or the compulsive drinking pattern seen in alcoholic dependent
people.
Alcohol abuse and dependence are both a part of polydrug abuse (using/abusing more than
one drug at once). This is shown by the fact that 80-85% of all drinkers are smokers (may be
because alcohol and nicotine are synergetic/cross-tolerant)
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Document Summary

The pathological use of substances fall into 2 categories: substance abuse and substance dependence. The dsm-iv-tr distinguishes between alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse. Alcohol dependence may include tolerance and withdrawal reactions. People with alcohol dependence typically have more severe symptoms. The body becomes adapted to the alcohol and the abrupt withdrawal of the drug may cause. Dts: symptoms include anxiousness, depression, weakness, restlessness, insomnia; tremors in muscles (face, eyelids, and tongue) elevated pulse, bp, and temperature. In rare cases, more serious symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions may appear. The blood alcohol levels of extreme abusers are unexpectedly low after what is considered heavy drinking showing the body adapts to the drug and processes it more efficiently. Tolerance results from changes in the number and sensitivity of gaba or glutamate receptors. Overtime, neural pathways adapt to the alcohol use and compensate for its inhibitory effects. When the drinking stops, the inhibitory effects of alcohol are lost, resulting in overexcitation.