PSYB32H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Demonology, Psychology, Community Psychology

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Published on 8 Jul 2011
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB32H3
Chapter 1- Introduction: Definitional & Historical Considerations, & Canada’s Mental
Health System
Psychopathology the field of concerned with the nature & development of
abnormal behaviour, thoughts, & feelings
Challenge we face in studying abnormal psychology is the need to remain
objective
The concepts & verbal labels we use in the scientific study of abnormal behaviour
must be free of the subjective feelings of appropriateness ordinarily attached to
certain human phenomena
What Is Abnormal Behaviour?
Abnormality is usually determined by the presence of several characteristics at
one time
Abnormal behaviour includes such characteristics as statistical infrequency,
violation of norms, personal distress, disability or dysfunction, & unexpectedness
Statistical Infrequency
One aspect of abnormal behaviour is that it is infrequent
The normal curve, or bell-shaped curve, places the majority of people in the
middle as far as any particular characteristic is concerned
An assertion that a person is normal implies that he/she does not deviate much
from the average in a particular trait or behaviour pattern
Statistical infrequency is used explicitly in diagnosing mental retardation
When an individual’s IQ is below 70, his/her intellectual functioning is
considered sufficiently subnormal to be designated as mental retardation
Unfortunately, the statistical component gives us little guidance in determining
which infrequent behaviours psychopathologists should study
Violation of Norms
Another characteristic to consider is whether the behaviour violates social norms
or threatens or makes anxious those observing it
Violation of norms explicitly makes abnormality a relative concept; various forms
of unusual behaviour can be tolerated, depending on the prevailing cultural norms
Personal Distress
Another characteristic is personal suffering; that is, behaviour is abnormal if it
creates great distress & torment in the person experiencing it
Disability or Dysfunction
Disability- that is, impairment in some important area of life b/c of an
abnormality- can also be a component of abnormal behaviour
Substance-use disorders are also defined in part by the social or occupational
disability created by substance abuse
Unexpectedness
Distress & disability are considered abnormal when they are unexpected
responses to environmental stressors
According to Goering et althe major proportion of primary mental health care in
Canada is delivered by general practitioners
Psychological services are vastly underused
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Many areas of Canada are underserved by two important mental health
professions
History of Psychopathology
Many early philosophers, theologiansm & physicians who studied the troubled
mind believed that deviancy reflected the displeasure of the gods or
possessions by demons
Early Demonology
The doctrine that an evil being, such as the devil, may dwell within a person
& control his/her mind & body is called demonology
Exorcism typically took the form of elaborate rites of prayer, noisemaking,
forcing the afflicted to drink terrible-tasting brews, & on occasion more
extreme measures, such as flogging & starvation, to render the body
uninhabitable to devils
Trepanning of skulls by stone age or Neolithic cave dwellers was quite
widespread
Kidd suggested that the trepanningswere done to relieve pressure resulting
from depressed fractures caused by war clubs
Somatogenesis
Hippocrates, often regarded as the father of modern medicine, separated
medicine from religion, magic, & superstition
Hippocrates regarded the brain as the organ of consciousness, of intellectual
life & emotion; thus, he thought that deviant thinking & behaviour were
indications of some kind of brain pathology
Somatogenesis- the notion that something wrong with the soma or physical
body, disturbs thought and action
Psychogenesis is the belief that a disturbance has psychological origins
For melancholia Hippocrates prescribed tranquillity, sobriety, care in choosing
food & drink, & abstinence from sexual activity
If a person was sluggish & dull, the body supposedly contained a
preponderance of phlegm. A preponderance of black bile was the explanation
for melancholia; too much yellow bile explained irritability & anxiousness; &
too much blood, changeable temperament
His basic premise, that human behaviour is markedly affected by bodily
structures or substances & that abnormal behaviour is produced by some kind
of physical imbalance or even damage, did foreshadow aspects of
contemporary thought
The Dark Ages & Demonology
Christian monasteries, through their missionary & educational work, replaced
physicians as healers & as authorities on mental disorders
When monks cared for the mentally disordered, they prayed over them &
touched them with relics or they concocted fantastic potions for them to drink
in the waning phase of the moon. The families of the deranged might take
them to shrines
Many of the mentally ill roamed the countryside, becoming more & more
disturbed
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The Persecution of Witches
Malleus Maleficarum is a guide for witch hunts
Witchcraft & Mental Illness
For some time, the prevailing interpretation was that it was generally the
mentally ill of the later Middle Ages who were considered witches
Interpreted by some writers as delusions or hallucinations & thus are taken to
indicate that some of the so-called witches were psychotic
The people who were confined were not described as being possessed
Beginning in the 13th century, lunacy trails determined a person’s sanity were
healed in England
The trails were conducted under the Crown’s right to protect the mentally
impaired, & a judgement of insanity allowed the Crown to become guardian
of the lunatic’s estate
Development of Asylums
Leprosariums were converted to asylums, refuges established for the
confinement & care of the mentally ill. Many of these asylums took in a
mixed lot of disturbed people & beggars
Bethlehem & Other Early Asylums
Benjamin Rush is considered the father of American psychiatry. He believed
that mental disorder was caused by an excess of blood in the brain.
Consequently, his favoured treatment was to draw great quantities of blood!
Further, he believed that many lunatics could be cured by being frightened
Moral Treatment
Philippe Pinel is consider a primary figure in the movement for humanitarian
treatment of the mentally ill in asylums
The more humanitarian treatment he reserved for the upper classes; patients
of the lower classes were still subjected to terror & coercion as a means of
control
William Tuke. In 1796 the York Retreat was established on a country estate,
providing mentally ill patients with a quiet & religious atmosphere in which
to live, work & rest. Patients discussed their difficulties with attendants,
worked in the garden, & took walks through the countryside
Moral treatment, patients had close contact with the attendants, who talked &
read to them & encouraged them to engage in purposeful activity’ residents
led as normal lives as possible & in general took responsibility for themselves
within the constraints of their disorders
Drugs were the most common treatment & included alcohol, cannabis,
opium, & chloral hydrate. Second, the outcomes were not very favourable;
fewer than one third of the patients were discharged as improved or recovered
Asylums in Canada
JF Lehman wrote the first textbook published in Canada with a focus on the
care & control of mentally ill people
Lehman recommended stringent discipline & harsh treatment
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Document Summary

Chapter 1- introduction: definitional & historical considerations, & canada"s mental. What is abnormal behaviour: abnormality is usually determined by the presence of several characteristics at one time, abnormal behaviour includes such characteristics as statistical infrequency, violation of norms, personal distress, disability or dysfunction, & unexpectedness. Personal distress: another characteristic is personal suffering; that is, behaviour is abnormal if it creates great distress & torment in the person experiencing it. Unexpectedness: distress & disability are considered abnormal when they are unexpected responses to environmental stressors, according to goering et al the major proportion of primary mental health care in. Canada is delivered by general practitioners : psychological services are vastly underused www. notesolution. com, many areas of canada are underserved by two important mental health professions. History of psychopathology: many early philosophers, theologiansm & physicians who studied the troubled mind believed that deviancy reflected the displeasure of the gods or possessions by demons.