PSYB32H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 14: Female Sexual Arousal Disorder, Transvestic Fetishism, Cross-Dressing

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Published on 29 Jul 2011
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB32H3
Chapter 14- Sexual and Gender identity disorders
1.Gender identity disorder
2.The paraphilias
3.Rape
4.Sexual dysfunctions
Characteristics of GID
Actions that are generally regarded as abnormal and dysfunctional are listed as
sexual and gender identity disorders in the DSM-IV-TR
Gender identity disorder:
-sometimes referred to as transsexualism
-know from early childhood that they are of the opposite sex
-they have an aversion to same-sex clothing and activities. The evidence of their autonomy=
normal genitals and the usual secondary sex characteristics doesnt persuade them that
they are what others see them to be
-the majority of GID cases are diagnosed as GIDNOS (gender identity disorder not
otherwise specified) ;the person has symptoms that meet much of the description of GID,
but there are some unique features that dont fit the criteria
-when GID begins in childhood, it is associated with cross gender behaviours ie. Cross-
dressing, preferring opposite-sex playmates and engaging in play that is usually more
typical of the opposite sex (boy playing with barbies)
-GID is usually recognized by parents when the child is 2-4 years old
-GID is about 6.6 times more frequent in boys than girls
-factors to seek clinical treatment..
1. a belief that the behaviour was no longer a phase that the child would grow out of
2. a threshold violation
3. belief that the child was experiencing intense distress about being a boy or girl
4. concerns about potential/ actual rejection by peers
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-most children with GID do not grow up to be disordered in adulthood, even without
professional intervention. However many demonstrate a homosexual orientation.
-excluded from GID are ppl with schizophrenia who on very rare occasions claim to be of the
other sex, as well as hermaphrodites, so called intersexed individuals, who have bothe
female and male organs. A male with GID experiences his sexual interest in males as if he
was a normal womanthey often experience discrimination in employment
-GID in childhood is linked with separation anxiety disorderprevalence rates of 1/30,000
for men and 1/100,000-150,000 for women
Causes of GID
Children who experience a sense of inappropriateness in the culturally prescribed
gender role of their sex but who do not experience discomfort with their biological sex shd
be considered to have GID
Classifying GID as a mental disorder may add to the stigma who go on to be gay
Evidence indicates that gender identity is influenced by hormones
Interviews with the parents of children who show signs of GID often reveal that they
did not discourage, and in many instances clearly encouraged, cross-dressing behaviour in
their atypical children. This holds true especially for feminine boys. Female relatives found
it cute when the boys dressed in the mothers old dresses and high heels.
The childs attractiveness is a factor that may contribute to this pattern of parental
behaviour. Boys with GID have been rated as more attractive than control children and girls
with GID less attractive. Male patients with GID report having distant relationships with
their fathers, females often report a history of physical/sexual abuse
A hypothesis is that stereotypically feminine behaviour in boys is encouraged by
mothers who, prior to the childs birth, wanted very much to have a girl
Our society has a low tolerance for boys who engage in feminine activities, where as
girls can play games and dress up like boys and still conform to society
Therapies for GID
Body alterations: generally required to do 6-12 months of psychotherapy. The
therapy typically focuses not only on the anxiety and depression that the person has likely
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been experiencing, but also on available options for altering his/her body. May have
electrolysis to remove facial hair, surgery to reduce the size of their adams apple.. ,it is
estimated more than 1,000 transsexuals are surgically altered
-Sex reassignment surgery: made more frequently by men, is an operation in which the
existing genitilia are altered to make them more like those of the opposite sex
Preoperative factors that seemed to predict favourable-post surgery adjustment were 1)
reasonable emotional stability 2)successful adaptation in the new role for at least one year
before the surgery 3)adequate understanding of the actual limitations and consequences of
surgery 4) psychotherapy in the context of an established gender identity program
The Paraphilias
Paraphilias: are a group of disorders involving sexual attraction to unusual objects/
sexual activities that are unusual in nature. There is a deviation (para) in what the person
is attracted to (philia). The fantasies, urges, or behaviours must last at least 6 months and
cause impairment.
-The DSM diagnostic criterion of distress or impairment has created some problems b/c
many ppl with their behavioural features of paraphilia are neither impaired or distressed
-People often exhibit 1+ paraphilias
Fetishism: involves a reliance on an inanimate object for sexual arousal. Almost
always male, has recurrent and intense sexual urges toward non-living objects, and the
presence of the fetish is strongly preferred or even necessary for sexual arousal to occur.
Usually begins in adolescence.
The attraction has a compulsive quality, it is experienced as involuntary and
irresistible
Transvestic fetishism: when a man is sexually aroused by dressing in womans
clothing, although he still regards himself as a man. They are not considered transvestic
unless the cross-dressing is associated with sexual arousal. Usually begins with partial
cross-dressing in childhood/ adolescence. Transvestites are heterosexual, always male-
many are married and may be accompanied by gender dysphoria: discomfort with ones
anatomical sex
-Autogynephilia: refers to a mans tendency to become sexually aroused at the thought or
image of himself as a woman.
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Document Summary

Actions that are generally regarded as abnormal and dysfunctional are listed as sexual and gender identity disorders in the dsm-iv-tr. Know from early childhood that they are of the opposite sex. They have an aversion to same-sex clothing and activities. The evidence of their autonomy= normal genitals and the usual secondary sex characteristics doesn"t persuade them that they are what others see them to be. The majority of gid cases are diagnosed as gidnos (gender identity disorder not otherwise specified) ;the person has symptoms that meet much of the description of gid, but there are some unique features that don"t fit the criteria. When gid begins in childhood, it is associated with cross gender behaviours ie. cross- dressing, preferring opposite-sex playmates and engaging in play that is usually more typical of the opposite sex (boy playing with barbies) Gid is usually recognized by parents when the child is 2-4 years old.