General characteristics of mood disorders involve disabling disturbances in emotion. Often associated with other psychological problems, such as panic attacks, substance abuse, sexual dysfunction, and personality disorders. Is an emotional state marked by sadness and feelings of worthlessness and guilt. Symptoms include withdrawal from others and loss of sleep, appetite, sexual desire, and interest and pleasure in usual activities. People from non-western cultures emphasize somatic symptoms of depression, while people from western cultures emphasize emotional symptoms. Psychologizers: people who emphasize the psychological aspects of depression. Is an emotional state or mood of intense but unfounded elation accompanied by irritability, hyperactivity, talkativeness, flight of idea, distractibility, and impractical, grandiose plans. 2 major mood disorders are listed in dsm-5: major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Depression exists of a continuum of severity vs. discrete diagnostic category. Persistent depressive disorder: combining chronic depression and the condition formerly known as dysthymia.