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PSYB32H3 Chapter Notes -Object Permanence, Zoology, Intelligence Quotient

Course Code
Mark Schmuckler

of 6
Child lec 5
Definition of cognition
-act of knowing something
-mental processes by which knowledge is acquired
-what is our perception of the world?
Perspectives on cognitive dev
-structural functional approach: emphasize on the biological functions
-not just how much is changing but the organization of our thinking how does it change
-information process: focus on ind cognitive dev, such as changes of perception and memory
Piaget theory
-originally trained as a zoologist
-worked on intelligence
-benet was responsible for IQ test, and Piaget worked in his lab
-administer precisely worded questions to children to determine at which age children got the
right answers
-piaget developed a strong inference of the nature of the wrong answers that children made
-at the same age children made similar types of errors, but were diff than children errors at diff
-piaget adapted a common method, where it was a question answer technique
-this allowed insight into child thought processes
-how does the child reason
-has a number of extremely important concepts
-for piaget intelligence is a bacis life force that helps the person adapt to environment
-it’s a balance that the organism is trying to achieve
-balance between thought processes and environment=cognitive equilibrium
-children were active explorers and constantly challenged by novel stimuli that they don’t
-when they encounter these stimuli it creates an imbalance and they make active attempts in
trying to understand this imbalance
-the notion is that children are constructivists, when something happens that they don’t
understand they contruct what they think is going on, they construct their own reality
-the state of affairs that are going on they don’t care make their own
-active constructive role
-children were constructing cognitive schema (schemata)
-schema is a pattern of thought or action, a plan, a concept.
-schemas are labeled by the types of behavior they represent
-behavioral schema: organized pattern of behavior the child uses to respond to some object of
experience (first psychological structure to appear)
-childs knowledge about these events are limited to the type of physical actions they can
-symbolic schemas : roughly 2 years of age children learn to think about objects and events
without having them present
-they can have an idea of representing objects without them
-operational schemas: by the age of 7, incorporates cognitive operations. Mental activities that
can be applied to objects or events
How do these schemas change?
-organization: refers to the idea of combining existing structures/schemas into new ones
-produces more complex schemas
-adaptation: involves process of adjusting to the demands of the environment
-involves assimilation: children try to interpret new experiences by relating them to
experiences they previously learned. Ex: a child sees a horse, so they assimilate it to the
4 creature scheme and say it as a dog
-accomodatio: process by which children change their existing cognitive structures to
account for new experiences. Ex: they accommodate and change their 4 legged creature
to dog and horse
-these 2 work together
-assimilating a concept will change the way they see their schema then they are gonna
have to accommodate it
-whats the end product of adaptation: cognitive equilibrium
Piaget’s stages of cognitive development
-stages are qualitatively diff and reflect how children learn
-the quality of thought, how children approach a task
-properties of the stages
1.invariant dev sequence: the stages must appear in an unchanging constant order
-the ages are arbitrary and change according to different environmental factors
-if it has to occur this way for every child, is if its written into genetic code
-just because the order is there, doesn’t mean we know when it is going to be turned on.
Influenced by genetic and environmental factors
-you can go quickly stages 1,2,3 and not get to 4 til later
2.hierarchical relations among stages: the structure of early stages are not lost forever, they are
integrated into the function that occur at later stages
Stages of dev piagets cog dev
1. Sensory motor stage: birth to 2 years
-infants knowledge is practical, coordinate perceptive with motor, what can be done
with objects? Can I hit them, touch them…
-divided into 6 substages
-development of intentional behavior
-when people enter stage, they begin to combine schemas into new complex schemas
-actions no longer have hit or miss, children can engage in intentionally behavior
-object permanence: hid a toy under a blanket (8-12) the child can coordinate 2 diff
schemas to recover the toy, they know they have to reach move the blanket than grab
the toy (means end sequences) it involves the understanding that objects continue to
exists even when we cant see them earlier before 8 months, the toy is out of sight out of
mind. They wouldn’t search for it. But then the child understands it is still there, and if
they didn’t know, they wouldn’t search for it
-the a not b error: take an object hide it in a cup, the baby will pull that object out of
location a. right in front of lil billy put that object in location in b they go back to a. why
do they make this a not b error, children do not have full blown representation of the
object, its existence is tied to motor grabbing, or the position in space, they don’t have a
full representation of the object.
The development of mental representations: mental image that the mind can represent
or a concept (abstraction, categorie)
-at the end children arrive to solutions suddenly
-do this and only have independently mental representations
-now they can solve hidden displacement: children see object hidden at one location,
they see the object has been moved to a next location , they can infer it from what they
saw, use mental representation
-allows them to perform different forms of imitiation (8-12 months) show an infant
something they can have mental representation and imitate it. It’s a less precise
imitation, but its still a form. It is still tied to what they are observing at this stage, 8-24
months now they have reprensentative imitation.
They can also differ imitation, where they can imitate at diff times from seein the action
2. Preoperational stage:2-7years
-most obvious change is the ability to engage in symbolic activity.
-symbolic activity occurs-language at 2 years of age, it’s a prototypical symbolic activity
-pattern of speech and sound stand for a product in the world
-pretend play they start to engage in this, display an awareness that make believe play is
representational of the real world. Know it is diff from the world they know they are
acting out roles
-along with these games piaget talked about what they did not understand, their limits
-he talked about them not engaging in operations (mental activities that obey rules)
1. egocentrism: evolves failure to distinguish between the viewpoints of other and urs.
Your view of the world and others view of the world (3 mountain task show 3 mountains
of diff heights put a doll on the other side. Describe the dolls view. They pick the picture
of their view not of the dolls view which was diff)
2. animism: inanimate objects have life like characteristics
3. conservation tasks: childrens ability to understand that some objects are the same
before and after transformation ex: small glass and tall glass they aren’t conserving
number. Pick what looks bigger,
-can undo operations
-they are distracted by perception rather then thinking about it, they treat it as separate
entities, how does it look here and how does it look here
3. Concrete operations (7-11yrs)