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Chapter

PSYB32H3 Chapter Notes -Parenting Styles, Coparenting, Shared Parenting


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Mark Schmuckler

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Psyb20-ch 11
Socialization : process, ensuring that their child’s standard of behavior, attitudes, skills and
motives conform as closely as possible to those regarded as desirable and appropriate to her
role in society
The family system
-parents influence and direct their children, but their children also influence them and play an
active role in their own socialization
-families are influenced by the larger physical, cultural , social and historical settings and events
around them
-families are not static they change over time
The ecological systems perspective
-contexts in which children are embedded play an important role in the developmental
trajectories
-system is a complex and organized it has an ongoing identity of its own, it maintains a certain
stability over time and it must be capable of morphogenesis which is adapting to the changes
both within and outside the sytem. It must demonstrate equifinality as time goes by developing
many similarities with other systems like it but expressing the similarities in diff ways
-interdependency, each fam member and family subsystems influences and is influenced by
each other member and subsystem
-families attain homeostasis where they become resistant to forced that might alter the
balance
-adaptability is the central criterion of a well functioning family
-resistance to change can prevent parents or other fam members from recognizing problem
and cause members to blame all fam difficulties on one child who becomes the scapegoat for
everyone else
-families have boundaries, which vary in how permeable or vunerable they are outside
influences
-well functioning family allows member to maintain satisfying relationships both within and
outside the family itself
-families whose boundaries are too permeable can be vulnerable to disruptions by external
forces
The marital system
-the nature of the partners relationship with one another has impact on the children
-satisfactory to both partners facilitates effective parenting, good sibling relations and healthy
development of all family;s children
how does marital relationship affect children
-partners offer emotional and physical support, they will provide the same for their children
-shared parenting allows for better relationships with children

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-co-operate in caring for their children also help each other shoulder some of the special
burdens new parents experience, help each other help the child
-conflict between parents has been found to reflect insecure attachments of children to both
parents
-fathers who had and angry and withdrawn style of dealing with disputes had children who
were more likely to be depressed than other children
-indirectly effects: when marriage difficulties cause parents to change their child rearing
practices
-directly: children are witness to arguments
-handle disputes constructively, they show children the right way, and reduce harm to child
-they can model healthy conflict negotiation
-couples themselves tend to be more negative in disputes in the presence of child
-boys are much more susceptible to the negative effects than girls, parents are less likely to
argue in front of girls more protecting of daughters than sons
Impact of a new baby on the martial system
-presence and behavior of a child influences the marital relationship
-marital satisfaction declines more markedly in woman than in men after birth first child
-gradually fathers become more aware of the restrictions a baby impose on their lives
-kids who are temperamentally difficult or handicapped n some way may often contribute to
heightened family stress
-the birth of a child rarely destroys a good marriage
The parent-child system
-individual children may develop very differently within the same family situation
How parents socialize children
-socialiazation begins at birth becomes more conscious and systematic as he child achieves
greater mobility and begins to use formal language
-teaching their children social rules and roles, parents rely on several learning principles
-they can use reinforcement where they explain acceptable standards then praise of discipline
according to if the child behaves appropriately or not
-they may also teach by modeling behaviors they want children to adopt, this could occur by
chance however or the modeled behavior may not always be what they want to produce
-parents also manage aspects of their children’s environment that will influence their social
development
-they choose neighborhoods and home, they may decorate the childs room with female or men
colors
Dimensions of prenatal behavior
-emotionality: warm responsive parents or rejecting and unresponsive
-control: very demanding of their children, restricting their behavior or they may be permissive
and undemanding pretty much allowing the child to do as they wish

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Emotionality
-warm parent child is likely to want to maintain the parent’s approval and be distressed by
loosing parents love
-cool and rejecting, child has nothing to lose
-phsycial punishment is more effective in the hand s of warm parents
-warmth and nurturance are likely to be associated with prenatal responsiveness to the child’s
needs
-loving parents make children feel good about themselves, they build sense of self and their self
esteem
-levels of tension and anxiety are that are likely ot be associated with hostile parents and
frequent physical punishment may make it very difficult for the child to learn the social rules
that the parent is attempting to teach
Control
-socialization does involve mutual influence between parents and children the parents usually
have more control in childs interactions
-behavioral control: setting reasonable rules and parental use of suggestion, reasoning and
possible alternative courses of actions as well as monitoring of childrens activities
-children are more likely to cooperate and adopt and internalize their parents standards
-psychological control involves the use of emotion-directed tactics such as guilt or shame
induction withdrawal of love and affection or ignoring or discounting a child’s feelings, this
leads to lower self estem and possibly depression and in the long run the child might adopt
these types of power assertive techniques when she becomes a parent
-as children grow older they resist being controlled and manipulated by others
-child gains cognitive competence become more autonomous, parents rely on reasoning and
the child engages more and more in active bargaining
-parents effective socialization of the child is due to the child’s interpretation of the methods of
the parent-child relationship and the goals of the parent
-parents often employ techniques other than power assertion and reasoning to discipline
children
Parenting sytle
-see table 11-1 p.435 for different styles
-infants lack prenatal involvement is associated with disruptions in attachment
-preschool children poor monitoring combined with coercive discipline predicted conduct
problems
-older children it is associated with impulsivity, aggression, non compliance, moodiness and low
self esteem
-adolescence, they are more likely to spend time on the streets with troublesome peers
Challenges to the parenting styles approach
-we need to identitify more clearly the components of each style that contribute to its relative
effectiveness or ineffectiveness in respect to the child’s development
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