! They collect diagnostic information and blood samples from
affected individuals and their relative and use the blood samples to study
the inheritance pattern of characteristics who genetics are fully
understood, referred to as “genetic markers”
c) Biochemistry of Nervous System
- neuron (nerve cell) made up of four major parts; 1) the cell body,
2) Several dendrites, 3) one or more axons, 4) terminal button
located on many end braches of the axon.
- How a nerve impulse is sent-PAGE 36-37
-Neurotransmitters-chemical substances that allow a nerve impulse
to cross the synapse (the space between the terminal ending of the
sending axon and the cell membrane of the receiving neuron)
- Nor epinephrine-neurotransmitter involved in anxiety disorders
- Serotonin and dopamine are neurotransmitter of the brain.
Involved in depression (serotonin) and schizophrenia (dopamine).
! a given disorder maybe be caused by either too much or
too little of a particular neurotransmitter.
** Refer to pages 37-38 for structure and function of Human Brain**
- In 1985, psychoactive drugs were introduced in the US.
! Tranquilizers were effective in reducing the tension associated with
some anxiety disorders
! Antidepressants such as prozac to treat depression
!Antipsychotic drugs used for treating schizophrenia
! Stimulants such as Ritalin, employed in treating attention deficit
Reductionism- refers to the view that whatever is being studied can and
should be reduced to its most basic elements or
! reducing complex mental and emotional responses to
2) Psychoanalytic Paradigm
- Originally developed by Sigmund Freud
- The central assumption is that psychopathology results from
unconscious conflicts in the individual.
- Freud divided the mind into three principle parts:
! the Id- is present at birth and is the part of the mind that
accounts for all the energy needed to run the
- comprises basic urges for food, water,
elimination, warmth, affection and sex
- pleasure principle, and seeks immediate
- Id’s energy is all biological, but as infant grows,
the energy, now called LIBIDO, concerted into
psychic energy, all of it UNCONSCIOUS