Chapter 4- Clinical Assessment Procedures
! Two concepts that play a key role in assessment are reliability and validity.
! Psychometrics exists for the study of reliability and validity.
! Inter-rater reliability refers to the degree to which two independent observers or
! Test-retest reliability measures the extent to which people being observed twice or
taking the same test twice score the same way.
! Alternate-form reliability: the extent to which scores of two forms of the test are
! Internal consistency reliability assesses whether the items of a test are related to one
! The higher the correlation, the better the reliability.
! Validity is generally related to whether a measure fulfills its intended purpose.
! Content validity refers to whether a measure adequately samples the domain of
! Criterion validity is evaluated by determining whether a measure is associated is an
expected way with some other measure (the criterion).
! Predictive validity- the measure’s ability to predict some other variable that is
measure in the future.
! Construct validity is relevant when we want to interpret a test as a measure of some
characteristic or construct that is not simply defined. A construct is an inferred
attribute, such as anxiousness or distorted cognition, that a test is trying to measure.
! Clinical interview- the interviewer pays attention to how the respondent answers
! The paradigm within which an interviewed operates influences the type of
information sought, how it is obtained, and how it is interpreted.
! Structured interview is one in which the questions are set our in a prescribed fashion
for the interviewed.
! Psychological tests are standardized procedures designed to measure a person’s
performance on a particular takes or to asses his or her personality, or thoughts,
feelings and behaviour.
! Standardization - the same test is administered to many people, responses are
analyzed to indicate how certain kinds of people tend to respond, statistical norms for
the test are established.
! Three basic types of psychological tests:
! 1)self-repost personality inventories,
! " In a personality inventory, the person is asked to complete a self-report
questionnaire indication whether statements assessing habitual
tendencies apply to him or her. Most popular is MMPI- Minnesota
multiphasic personality inventory.
! 2) projective personality tests and
! " A projective test is a psychological assessment device in which a set of
standard stimuli- inkblots or drawings- ambiguous enough to allow
variation in responses in presented to the individual. Because the stimulus