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Chapter 4

Study Guide of Chapter 4 for PSYB32

by

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Konstantine Zakzanis
Chapter
4

Page:
of 3
Chapter 4- Clinical Assessment Procedures
! Two concepts that play a key role in assessment are reliability and validity.
! Psychometrics exists for the study of reliability and validity.
! Inter-rater reliability refers to the degree to which two independent observers or
judges agree.
! Test-retest reliability measures the extent to which people being observed twice or
taking the same test twice score the same way.
! Alternate-form reliability: the extent to which scores of two forms of the test are
consistent.
! Internal consistency reliability assesses whether the items of a test are related to one
another.
! The higher the correlation, the better the reliability.
! Validity is generally related to whether a measure fulfills its intended purpose.
! Content validity refers to whether a measure adequately samples the domain of
interest.
! Criterion validity is evaluated by determining whether a measure is associated is an
expected way with some other measure (the criterion).
! Predictive validity- the measure’s ability to predict some other variable that is
measure in the future.
! Construct validity is relevant when we want to interpret a test as a measure of some
characteristic or construct that is not simply defined. A construct is an inferred
attribute, such as anxiousness or distorted cognition, that a test is trying to measure.
! Clinical interview- the interviewer pays attention to how the respondent answers
questions.
! The paradigm within which an interviewed operates influences the type of
information sought, how it is obtained, and how it is interpreted.
! Structured interview is one in which the questions are set our in a prescribed fashion
for the interviewed.
! Psychological tests are standardized procedures designed to measure a person’s
performance on a particular takes or to asses his or her personality, or thoughts,
feelings and behaviour.
! Standardization - the same test is administered to many people, responses are
analyzed to indicate how certain kinds of people tend to respond, statistical norms for
the test are established.
! Three basic types of psychological tests:
! 1)self-repost personality inventories,
! " In a personality inventory, the person is asked to complete a self-report
questionnaire indication whether statements assessing habitual
tendencies apply to him or her. Most popular is MMPI- Minnesota
multiphasic personality inventory.
!
! 2) projective personality tests and
! " A projective test is a psychological assessment device in which a set of
standard stimuli- inkblots or drawings- ambiguous enough to allow
variation in responses in presented to the individual. Because the stimulus
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materials are unstructured, the patient’s repsonses will be
determined primarily by unconscious processes and will reveal hir or her
true attitudes, motivations and modes of behaviour- the projective
hypothesis.
! "Rorschach inkblot test - a person is shows 10 inkblots, one at a time and
asked to tell what figures or objects he or she sees in each of them.
! "Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)- a person is shown a series of black
and white pictures one by one and asked to tell a story related to each.
!
! 3) tests of intelligence.
! An intelligence test, often referred as an IQ test, is a standardized means of assessing
a person’s current mental ability.
! Scores on most IQ tests have 100 as the mean and 15 or 16 as standard deviation.
! Below 70 is sub average general intellectual functioning and about 130 is
intellectually gifted.
! Alexithymia is a condition of reduced emotional awareness that is a risk factor for a
variety of adjustment problems.
! Behavioural and cognitively oriented clinicians use SORC:
! S stands for stimuli-environmental situations that precede the problem.
! O stands for organismic- under the skin factors.
! R stands for overt responses- intensity, frequency and form of problematic
behaviour.
! C stands for consequent variables- events that appear to be reinforcing or
punishing the behaviour in question.
! In formal behavioural observation, the observer divides the uninterrupted sequence
of behaviour into various parts and applies terms that make sense within a learning
framework.
! Children predicted their own anxious feelings and behaviour during the task better
than parents and teachers.
! Observe their own behaviour and to keep track of various categories of response-
self-monitoring.
! Self-observation a.k.a. ecological momentary assessment, EMA.
! The main reason for using EMA is that the retrospective recall of moods, thoughts, or
experiences may be inaccurate.
! The phenomenon of behaviour changing because it is being observed is called
reactivity.
! Dysfunctional Attitude Scale DAS.
! Articulated thoughts in simulated situations ATSS. A person pretends that they
are in a situation. During 30 seconds or silences, the person talks about whatever is
going through their mind in reaction to what they heard.
! In thought listening, the person writes down his or her thoughts prior to or following
an event of interest, such as entering a room to talk to a stranger, as a way to
determining the cognitive components of social anxiety.
! Videotape reconstruction involves videotaping the individual while he or she is
engaged in some task.
! It is important to assess current or previous types and levels of family functioning
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before implementing the various forms of treatment.
! Equifinality is the notion that the same goal or endpoint can result from many
different starting points.
! Family environment scale FES assesses three main themes:
! 1) the family relationship,
! 2) personal growth and
! 3) system maintenance.
! The family adaptation and cohesion evaluation scale FACES-III has two
dimensions:
! degree of cohesion (Togetherness) and
! degree of adaptability )able to adapt to the rules that are changed)
! The parental bonding inventory PBI assesses the level of care or parental warmth
and the level of controlling parental behaviours.
! Affectionless control is an overcontrolling parent who lacks warmth and caring.
! EMBU assess memories of parental rearing styles.
! Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) allows assessment of
cerebral blood flow and is used increasingly in neuropsychiatry.
! MRI produces pictures of higher quality and does not rely radiation like CT scans.
! fMRI allows researchers to take MRI pictures so quickly that metabolic changes can
be measure, providing a picture of the brain at work rather than of its structure alone.
! PET scan allows measurement of brain function.
! A neurologist is a physician who specializes in medical diseases that affect the
nervous system, such as muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy, or Alzheimer’s disease.
! A neuropsychologist is a psychologist who studies how dysfunctions of the brain
affect the way we think, feel and behave.
! Neuropsychological tests are based on the idea that different psychological functions
are localized in different areas of the brain.
! Four tests included in the Halstead-Reitan battery are the tactile performance test-
time, memory, category test and speech sounds perception test.
! The luria-Nebraska batter has 11 sections.
! Psychophysiology is concerned with the bodily changes that accompany
psychological events or that are associated with a person’s psychological
characteristics.
! Each heartbeat generates spreading changes in electric potential, which can be
recorded by an electrocardiography and electrocardiogram.
! A second measure of autonomic nervous system activity is electro dermal responding
or skin conductance.
! Brain activity can be measured by an electroencephalogram or EEG.
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