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Chapter 11

Study Guide of Chapter 11 for PSYB32

by

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Konstantine Zakzanis
Chapter
11

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Chapter 11: Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia: psychotic disorder characterized by major disturbances in
through, emotion, and behaviour disordered thinking in which ideas are not
logically related, faulty perceptions and attention, flat or inappropriate affect,
and bizarre disturbances in motor activity
They withdraw from people and reality, often into a fantasy life of delusions and
hallucinations
Its own of the most severe psychopathologies
Prevalence of 1%
Sometimes begins in childhood, but usually begins in adolescence to young
adulthood.
Clinical Symptoms of Schizophrenia
Disturbances in several major areasthought, perceptions and attention, motor
behaviour; affect or emotions and life functioning
There is a lot of heterogeneity
Positive Symptoms
Positive symptoms: comprise excesses or distortions, such as disorganized
speech, hallucinations and delusions, an acute episode of schizophrenia
It involve the presence of too much of a behaviour that is not apparent in most
people
Disorganized speech
Aka formal thought disorder
Disorganized speech: problems in organizing ideas and in speaking so that a
listener cannot understand
There is incoherence in conversations (not connected and hard to understand)
Speech may also be disordered as loose associations/derailment (difficulty
sticking to one topic)
o They may drift off in what they are saying
But disorganized speech is not a discriminator between schizophrenia and other
psychoses (like some mood disorders)
Delusions
Thinking that others are plotting against you
Delusions: beliefs held contrary to reality, are common positive symptoms
Persecutory delusions are found in 65% of them
They may think their thoughts are beings stolen from them or are being
broadcasted
Hallucinations and Other disorders of Perception
They may feel depersonalized
Hallucinations: sensory experiences in the absence of any stimulation from the
environment (more auditory than visual)
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o They hear their own thoughts spoken by another voice
o They hear voices arguing
o Here voices commenting on their behaviour
Negative Symptoms
Negative symptoms: behavioural deficits, such as avolition, alogia, anhedonia,
flat affect and ascoiality
They tend to endure beyond an acute episode and have profound effects on the
lives of patients
Flat affect can be a side effect of antipsychotic medication
Avolition
Apathy/avolition: lack of energy and seeming absence of interest or inability to
persist in what are usually routine activities
Inattentive to grooming and personal hygiene
Difficulty persistent at work, school or household chores
Alogia
A negative thought disorder
Poverty of speech, sheer amount of speech is greatly reduced
Poverty in content of speech
Vague and repetitive speech
Anhedonia
An inability to experience pleasure
They are aware of it
Flat Affect
No stimulus can elicit an emotional response
Stare vacantly, muscles of face flaccid, and eyes lifeless
Flat and toneless voice
Asociality
impaired social relationships
few friends, poor social skills and little interest being with people
Schizophrenia onset is beginning in childhood
It is also said that they might not be able to recognize the emotions on top of not
being able to express it
Other Symptoms
Catatonia: several motor abnormalities
o Gesture repeatedly, using peculiar and complex finger sequences of
finger, hand and arm movements
o Sometimes excitement, wild flailing of the limbs
o Catatonic Immobility: patients adopt unusual postures and maintain
them for a very long period of time (stand on one leg)
o Waxy flexibility: another person can move the patients limb into strange
positions that the patient will then maintain for extended periods
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