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Chapter 4

Study Guide of Chapter 4 for PSYB32 con't

8 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Konstantine Zakzanis

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PSYB32
Chapter 4 - Clinical Assessment Procedure
Reliability
- consistency of measurement
!
interrater reliability:
degree to which two independent judges or observes agree
!
test-retest reliability
: measures extent to which people being observed twice or tested
twice with same test score the same
!
alternative-form reliability:
two forms of a test instead of same test used for people
may remember answers if it was the same test and see to extent in which people score
on two forms of test and if the scores are consistent
!
internal consistency reliability:
assesses whether items on test are related to each
other
[correlation is measured on how closely related variables are, higher correlation, higher
reliability]
Validity-
whether measure fulfills its intended purpose
[validity is related to reliability, unreliable measures[inconsistent results] have low validity]
!
content validity:
whether measure samples the domain of interest
!
criterion validity:
determine whether measure is associated with another measure [also
called
concurrent validity
when two variables are measured at the same time] ---> [to
predict other variables would measure in the future known as
predictive validity
]
!
construct validity
: interpretation of a test, measure of a characteristic eg. anxiousness
or distorted cognition; important for theory testing; ex. anxiety proneness
Clinical interview
! interviewer uses language as a principal means of finding out about the client
! attention the interview gives to the how the respondent answers or which he does not
respond to
! if person not upset about something they are talking about it may not be important but
if the person shoes emotion distress or ignoring of the topic then taken into
consideration
! eg. emotions a person displays when talking about a situation
! the paradigm an interviewer uses will affect what information will be found, how it will
be found, and how it will be interpreted
! for example a psychoanalytic clinician will inquire about clients history, don't think client
knows why he or she is coming to therapy, behavior clinician focus’s on environmental
conditions related to changes in the persons behavior and appreciate individuals distress
! find information for only what they are looking for
! clinicians emphasize the things to get the patient to bring them out in the open,
encourage them to elaborate, humanist may use specific empathy techniques
! interviews are important to the study of abnormal, clinicians however overlook factors
that they may be displaying and influencing clients responses
! reliability low, inconsistent results in interrator reliability, and other reliabilities
Structured Interview
! questions are set out in a prescribed fashion for the interviewer
www.notesolution.com
! eg. structured clinical interview diagnosis [SCID] for Axis 1 of DSM
! SCID is a branching interview that is clients response to one question determines the
next question asked
! contains details on when to probe and so forth, and when to go onto other questions on
other diagnosis
! most symptoms put on a three point scale with instructions on how to translate the
rating into diagnoses
! improvement in reliability
! interrater reliability for structured interviews are good
! structured interviews developed for personality disorders, and anxiety disorders
Psychological Tests
! standardized procedures designed to measure a persons performance on a particular
task or to assess their personality
! if diagnostic interviews don't give all answers psychological test may give them
! example patient with schizophrenia may not opening tell a clinical they have hallucination
but may report it on the psychological test
! when data is collected statistical norms can be established process known as
standardization
! responses of a person then compared to statistical norms
Personality inventories
! person completes a self-report questionnaire
! eg.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
(MMPI)
! used to detect a number of psychological problems
! reliable
! has adequate criterion validity
! has a series of statements that is a trap to identify faked responses eg lie scale
! however people knowing about these questions can allow them to fake a normal response
profile
! MMPI-2 was established to increases reliability and validity by including factors of
racial minorities, some items were taken out due to their content and intrusiveness, and
new scales on substance abuse, Type 1 behavior and martial problems were added
! can now be administered by computer and several commercial MMPI serves that score
and give response to individuals
! 65 is the norm, below or above to a great distance means there are certain problems
that need to be addressed
Projective Personality Test
! assessment device in which a set of standard stimuli such as inkblot or drawings are
presented to an individual and asked for them to be described
! assuming that because the pictures are unstructured the responses gained will be
primary by the unconscious processes that will reveal their true attitudes, feelings and
mode of behavior, referred to as a projective hypothesis
! ex. if individual sees eyes in a inkblot may be leaning towards paranoia
!
Rorschach Inkblot test:
best known projective technique
www.notesolution.com
-------->individual sees picture, half are black and white and shades of gray, 2 have red
spots, 3 are in pastel
! Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): person shown black and white pictures and asked to
tell a story related to each picture
! projective tests are derived from psychoanalytic paradigm
! using of these tests means that client will be unwilling to express his or her true
feelings
! psychoanalytically oriented clinicians like using such projective tests for they believe
people repress their feelings in the unconscious mind
! content of persons answer was seen symbolic of internal dynamics, and also concentrate
on the form of the persons response; test considered a perceptual-cognitive task
! Many people use the Exner’s system to score Inkblot tests but people feel that its
validity is only high on some tests but not all eg. high validity in finding people with
schizophrenia
! some believe an interview can simply find the answers behind the responses for the
inkblots
! Roberts Apperception Test for Children: projective tests developed with more
standardized scoring assessment
Intelligence Test by Alfred Binet
! often referred to as n IQ test, standardized means of assessing a persons current
mental ability
! Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS
! Wechsler Intelligence scale for Children WISC
! Standford-Binet
! all tests used to identify if individual will do well in future schooling
! used to diagnose learning disabilities, identify individuals with mental retardation,
identify gifted children, part of a neuropsychological evaluation
! IQ tap several functions asserted to constitute intelligence, including language skills and
abstract thinking, visual spatial skills, attention, concentration and so forth
! Standardized mean is 100, and 15 or 16 is the standard deviation
! 65% b/w 85 and 115
! below 70 have disorder
! above 130 are gifted
! 2.5 percent of population fall in theses extremes
! highly reliable and have good criterion validity
! regarding construct validity: psychologist only test what they consider to be intelligent
but we know that other factors also play a role in our intelligence
! emotional intelligence may also be important, to high may result in negativity with
alexithymia [reduced emotional awareness causing adjustment problems], also causes
subjective well-being and reduced depression proneness
Cognitive and Behavioral Assessment
! SORC
! S = Stimuli: environmental situations that precede problem
www.notesolution.com

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Description
PSYB32 Chapter 4 - Clinical Assessment Procedure Reliability - consistency of measurement interrater reliability: degree to which two independent judges or observes agree test-retest reliability: measures extent to which people being observed twice or tested twice with same test score the same alternative-form reliability: two forms of a test instead of same test used for people may remember answers if it was the same test and see to extent in which people score on two forms of test and if the scores are consistent internal consistency reliability: assesses whether items on test are related to each other [correlation is measured on how closely related variables are, higher correlation, higher reliability] Validity- whether measure fulfills its intended purpose [validity is related to reliability, unreliable measures[inconsistent results] have low validity] content validity: whether measure samples the domain of interest criterion validity: determine whether measure is associated with another measure [also called concurrent validity when two variables are measured at the same time] ---> [to predict other variables would measure in the future known as predictive validity] construct validity: interpretation of a test, measure of a characteristic eg. anxiousness or distorted cognition; important for theory testing; ex. anxiety proneness Clinical interview interviewer uses language as a principal means of finding out about the client attention the interview gives to the how the respondent answers or which he does not respond to if person not upset about something they are talking about it may not be important but if the person shoes emotion distress or ignoring of the topic then taken into consideration eg. emotions a person displays when talking about a situation the paradigm an interviewer uses will affect what information will be found, how it will be found, and how it will be interpreted for example a psychoanalytic clinician will inquire about clients history, don't think client knows why he or she is coming to therapy, behavior clinician focuss on environmental conditions related to changes in the persons behavior and appreciate individuals distress find information for only what they are looking for clinicians emphasize the things to get the patient to bring them out in the open, encourage them to elaborate, humanist may use specific empathy techniques interviews are important to the study of abnormal, clinicians however overlook factors that they may be displaying and influencing clients responses reliability low, inconsistent results in interrator reliability, and other reliabilities Structured Interview questions are set out in a prescribed fashion for the interviewer www.notesolution.com eg. structured clinical interview diagnosis [SCID] for Axis 1 of DSM SCID is a branching interview that is clients response to one question determines the next question asked contains details on when to probe and so forth, and when to go onto other questions on other diagnosis most symptoms put on a three point scale with instructions on how to translate the rating into diagnoses improvement in reliability interrater reliability for structured interviews are good structured interviews developed for personality disorders, and anxiety disorders Psychological Tests standardized procedures designed to measure a persons performance on a particular task or to assess their personality if diagnostic interviews don't give all answers psychological test may give them example patient with schizophrenia may not opening tell a clinical they have hallucination but may report it on the psychological test when data is collected statistical norms can be established process known as standardization responses of a person then compared to statistical norms Personality inventories person completes a self-report questionnaire eg. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) used to detect a number of psychological problems reliable has adequate criterion validity has a series of statements that is a trap to identify faked responses eg lie scale however people knowing about these questions can allow them to fake a normal response profile MMPI-2 was established to increases reliability and validity by including factors of racial minorities, some items were taken out due to their content and intrusiveness, and new scales on substance abuse, Type 1 behavior and martial problems were added can now be administered by computer and several commercial MMPI serves that score and give response to individuals 65 is the norm, below or above to a great distance means there are certain problems that need to be addressed Projective Personality Test assessment device in which a set of standard stimuli such as inkblot or drawings are presented to an individual and asked for them to be described assuming that because the pictures are unstructured the responses gained will be primary by the unconscious processes that will reveal their true attitudes, feelings and mode of behavior, referred to as a projective hypothesis ex. if individual sees eyes in a inkblot may be leaning towards paranoia Rorschach Inkblot test: best known projective technique www.notesolution.com-------->individual sees picture, half are black and white and shades of gray, 2 have red spots, 3 are in pastel Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): person shown black and white pictures and asked to tell a story related to each picture projective tests are derived from psychoanalytic paradigm using of these tests means that client will be unwilling to express his or her true feelings psychoanalytically oriented clinicians like using such projective tests for they believe people repress their feelings in the unconscious mind content of persons answer was seen symbolic of internal dynamics, and also concentrate on the form of the persons response; test considered a perceptual-cognitive task Many people use the Exners system to score Inkblot tests but people feel that its validity is only high on some tests but not all eg. high validity in finding people with schizophrenia some believe an interview can simply find the answers behind the responses for the inkblots Roberts Apperception Test for Children: projective tests developed with more standardized scoring assessment Intelligence Test by Alfred Binet often referred to as n IQ test, standardized means of assessing a persons current mental ability Wechsler Adult Intelligence
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