PSYB32H3 Chapter Notes -Almost Surely, Object Permanence, Puzzle Video Game

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Published on 16 Oct 2013
School
Department
Course
cognition
o mental activity through which humans acquire, remember and learn to use
knowledge
Piaget's Theory of Development
Piaget was helping another scientist develop an IQ test for children, he noticed 2 things:
o children around the same age tended to get the same answer wrong
o errors of children of the same age differed in systematic ways from other children
2 methods:
o interviews e.g. present child with problem and explain thinking
o observations
believed that children ACTIVELY seek to acquire knowledge
o encounter new info and try to fit it in with previous knowledge
constructivist view
o children actively create their own understanding of the world by fitting in new
knowledge with previous knowledge
Cognitive Organization
while they are developing, children's knowledge of the world is organized into more and
more complex structures
cognitive structure
o not a physical area in the brain, but an organized group of interrelated memories,
thoughts etc that children use to help them understand a situation
organization
o combining simple mental structures into more complex systems
o allows the child to act and understand the world in a certain way
o with new experiences, the child combines the new knowledge with old ones and a
new organization evolves
schema
o organized knowledge that a person uses to understand and interact with the
environment
operations
o as they grow older, they shift from using overt physical activities to using
schemas based on internal mental activities
Cognitive Adaptation
adaptation
o children continually modify their schemas
assimilation
o applying what they know/existing schemas to new experiences
o e.g. looking-grasping-sucking scheme
accommodation
o modifying an existing schema to fit with a new experience
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o e.g. cannot put large beach ball in mouth, so instead modifies strategy
Stages of Cognitive Development
stages of development
o large-scale changes
o each stages is different from the one before it
o all children pass through the stages in the same order, but not all reach at the exact
same time
intellectual development had 4 large scale changes:
o semsorimotor
o preoperational
o concrete operations
o formal operations
Sensorimotor Stage
0-2 years old
around 2, form mental representations of objects
has 6 substages
during this stage, learn about object permanence -realization that objects continue to
exist even when you can't see them
Substage 1: Basic Reflex Activity
birth to 1 month
infants become better and using their innate reflexes e.g. sucking
in the beginning, a lot of their exploration is based on involuntary reflexes, but during the
1st month, they change into controlled voluntary
object concept:
o look only at objects that are directly in front of them
Substage 2: Primary Circular Reactions
1-4 months
repetitive behaviours that are centered around the child's body
often the behaviour begins by chance and is repeated because it is pleasurable
o e.g. accidentally put finger close to mouth and start sucking on it (will do it over
and over)
object concept:
o do not understand that the object exists on its own
o e.g. if drop a toy on the floor, they will not look for it, may look at their empty
hand
Substage 3: Secondary Circular Reactions
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4-8 months
at 4 months, repetitive actions focus on external objects
o e.g. shake a rattle
object concept:
o beginning to show some object permanence
o will search for an object visually (can anticipate the path of movement and make
an expectation of where it should appear)
o but if the object is covered, will not retrieve it
Substage 4: Coordination of Secondary Schemata
8-12 months
child can make complex and intentional behaviours toward objects, in other words, child
is able to plan to get a goal
o e.g. move one toy out of the way to get another toy
this stage also marks the beginning of problem-solving behaviour
object concept:
o child searches for concealed objects, but commits a-not-b error
A-not-B error: if the object is hidden and is then moved to another
location while the child watches, the child will still look in the first hiding
spot
Substage 5: Tertiary Circular Reactions
12-18 months
children begin to experiement with the properties of objects and how they respond to
various actions
o e.g. dropping toys at different heights
before, children could only immitate behaviours, now they are able to produce similar
behaviours
o e.g. dropping from different heights
object concept:
o understands object permanence (especially from hidden object), however has
difficulty following more than one displacement
e.g. hide watch in a box and then hide behind cushion and give child
empty box, but child does not try to look for the watch behind the other
cushion
Substage 6: Inventing New Means by Mental Combination
18-24 months
the beginning of symbolic thought
o engage in internal/mental problem solving...think of ways to get goal by mentally
combining schemas
displays deferred imitation
o child mimics action some time after observing it
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Document Summary

Cognition: mental activity through which humans acquire, remember and learn to use knowledge. 2 methods: interviews e. g. present child with problem and explain thinking: observations. Operations: as they grow older, they shift from using overt physical activities to using schemas based on internal mental activities. Adaptation: children continually modify their schemas. Assimilation: applying what they know/existing schemas to new experiences, e. g. looking-grasping-sucking scheme. Accommodation: modifying an existing schema to fit with a new experience, e. g. cannot put large beach ball in mouth, so instead modifies strategy. Sensorimotor stage around 2, form mental representations of objects. During this stage, learn about object permanence -realization that objects continue to exist even when you can"t see them. Birth to 1 month infants become better and using their innate reflexes e. g. sucking in the beginning, a lot of their exploration is based on involuntary reflexes, but during the. Object concept: look only at objects that are directly in front of them.

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