PSYB32H3 Chapter Notes -Social Learning Theory, Psychodynamics, Cultural-Historical Psychology

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Published on 16 Oct 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB32H3
child development
o the field seeks to do 2 things
look at changes in the child's social, cognitive and other abilities
understand the processes underlying child development
Darwin
o researched children's emotions and sensory abilities
why studying child development is important
o better policies
o advance well-being of children and protect them
3 Themes
biological vs. environmental
continuous vs. discontinuous
individual vs. contextual
Origins of Behaviour: Biological vs. Environmental
Influences
o debate between biological and environmental factors
o Watson
believed that mostly influenced by environment and biology does not
predetermine
said that you can change child by environment e.g. make him into criminal
or genius
o now, research shows that it is a combination of factors
also, children are not just passively molded, but they mold their parents'
actions and this impacts them
Pattern of Developmental Change: Continuity vs.
Discontinuity
o continuous
learning takes places based on earlier experiences (builds on top of the
other)
no abrupt shifts, just a continuous spiral upwards
o discontinuous
steps in learning
each step is different from the one before it (not necessarily building on
top of each other)
o overlapping waves
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development appears continuous but at microscopic level, it is interspersed
with discontinuous
Forces that affect developmental change: individual
characteristics vs. context/culture
interactionist viewpoint
o stresses both individual and contextual factors in affecting development in a child
children respond differently to situational challenges or risks to healthy development
(psychological, biological or environmental)
o detrimental effect right away
o "sleeper" effect
cope at first, but problems later in development
o resilience
deal well
better able to adapt to challenges later on
Different Theories and Perspectives on
Development
Structural-Organismic Perspectives
Freud-interested in emotions, Piaget-interested in cognition/intellect
structural-organismic perspective
o discontinuous change
o children go through structured series of changes (step like)
o these stages are universal (each child goes through them)
PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY
psychodynamic theory
o idea that childhood shapes adult personality
o developing personality is made up of 3 parts:
o
id (instinctual drives)
ego
superego
id
o infant is controlled by id (driven by desire)
o first aspect of personality to evolve
o operates on pleasure
ego
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o rational and bound by reality, controls
o get desires through socially appropriate ways
superego
o child internalizes expectations as morals and values
o develops a conscience
o part of personality that internalizes values, morals and roles
5 stages of personality development
o oral
0-1
pleasure from putting things into the mouth e.g. eating, sucking, biting
o anal
1-3
learns to delay gratification (potty trained...has to wait before engaging in
pleasurable activities such as expelling feces
o phallic
3-6
curiosity about sexual anatomy
critical period to gender identity
o latency
6-12
sexual urges repressed
children avoid relationship with opposite sex
begin to learn about concern for others
o genital
20-65
sexual desires emerge
altruistic loves joins selfish love (need for reproduction)
the way in which a child negotiates oral, anal and phallic stages impacts emotional
development and personality
o e.g. infants who do not get enough oral stimulation may be more likely to smoke
as adults
Erikson-PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY
o psychosocial theory
8 stages of human development
at each stage, there are personal and social tasks you need to accomplish
o infancy
o early childhood
o play age
o school age
o adolescence
o young adulthood
o adulthood
o mature age
PIAGETIAN THEORY
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Document Summary

Child development the field seeks to do 2 things look at changes in the child"s social, cognitive and other abilities. Different types of research designscorrelational method type of research that allows scientists to establish relations between variables and see how strong those relations are. Conflicting modification on september 17, 2013, 6:13:47 pm: child development the field seeks to do 2 things look at changes in the child"s social, cognitive and other abilities. Darwin researched children"s emotions and sensory abilities. Why studying child development is important: better policies, advance well-being of children and protect them. Biological vs. environmental continuous vs. discontinuous individual vs. contextual. Influences: debate between biological and environmental factors, watson. Discontinuity: continuous learning takes places based on earlier experiences (builds on top of the other) No abrupt shifts, just a continuous spiral upwards: discontinuous steps in learning each step is different from the one before it (not necessarily building on top of each other, overlapping waves.

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