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PSYB32H3 Chapter Notes -Philippe Pinel, Intellectual Disability, Abnormal Psychology


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Konstantine Zakzanis

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PSYB32- Abnormal Psychology Notes
Chapter One:
Psychopathology: The field concerned with the nature and development of
abnormal behavior, thoughts, and feelings.
In studying abnormal psychology one must remain objective.
WHAT IS ABNORMAL BEHAVIOUR
Abnormal Behaviour: Statistical infrequency, violation of norms, personal
distress, disability or dysfunction, and unexpectedness.
STATISTICAL INFREQUENCY:
Normal curve: or bell-shaped curve, places the majority of people in the
middle as far as any particular characteristic is concerned. An assertion that
a person is normal implies that he or she does not deviate much from the
average in a particular trait or behavior pattern.
Statistical infrequency is used explicitly in diagnosing mental retardation.
Though a number of criteria are used to diagnose mental retardation, low
intelligence is a principal one.
Having great athletic ability is infrequent, but few would regard it as part of
the field of abnormal psychology.
VIOLATION OF NORMS:
Violates social norms: threatens or makes anxious those observing it.
Violation of norms explicitly makes abnormality a relative concept; various
forms of unusual behavior can be tolerated, depending on the prevailing
cultural norms.
Cultural diversity plays a role in affecting how people view social norms.
PERSONAL DISTRESS:
Personal Suffering: behavior is abnormal if it creates great distress and
torment in the person experiencing it.
DISABILITY OR DYSFUNCTION:
Disability or Dysfunction: that is, impairment in some important area of life.
UNEXPECTEDNESS:

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Distress and disability are considered abnormal when they are unexpected
responses to environmental stressors.
THE MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONS:
Clinicians: the various professionals authorized to provide psychological
services.
Clinical psychologist: requires a Ph.D. or Psy.D degree, which entails 4 to 7
years of graduate school.
To become a registered psychologist one must obtain five core competencies:
1) interpersonal relationship, 2) assessment and evaluation (including
diagnosis), 3) Intervention and consultation, 4) research, 5) ethics and
standards.
Candidates in clinical psychology learn skills in two additional areas, which
distinguishes them from other Ph.D. candidates in psychology: 1) they learn
assessment and diagnosis of mental disorders. Second, they learn how to
practice psychotherapy: a primarily verbal means of helping troubled
individuals change their thoughts, feelings, and behavior to reduce distress
and to achieve greater life satisfaction.
A psychiatrist holds an MD has had a postgraduate training called a residency
in which he or she has received supervision in the practice of diagnosis and
psychotherapy.
Psychiatrists engage in prescribing psychoactive drugs: chemical compounds
that can influence how people feel and think.
A psychoanalyst has received specialized training at a psychoanalytical
institute.
A social worker obtains an M.S.W (Masters of Social Work) degree programs
for counseling psychologists.
A psychiatric nurse specializes in the mental health field
HISTORY OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
Many early philosophers, theologians, and physicians who studied the
troubled mind believed that deviancy reflected the displeasure of the gods or
possession by demons.
EARLY DEMONOLOGY:
Demonology: The doctrine that an evil being, as the devil, may dwell within a
person and control his or her mind and body.
Exorcism: the casting out of evil spirits by ritualistic chanting or torture.
Trepanning: of skulls involves making a surgical opening in a living skull by
some instrument.
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