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Chapter 2.3

PSYB32H3 Chapter 2.3: PSYB32H3 Chapter 2.: 2.3

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Konstantine Zakzanis

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2.3 The Cognitive-Behavioural Paradigm
John B. Watson is assoc'd w/ behaviourism
Introspection - a procedure whereby trained subj's r asked to report on their conscious
o Used to be common b4 behaviourism by Watson
Behaviourism - an approach which focuses on observable behav as to a focus on consciousness
Classical Conditioning
Classical conditioning - a basic form of learning (AKA: "Pavlovian conditioning"), in which a neutral
stimulus is repeatedly paired w/ another stimulus (the unconditioned stimulus, UCS) which
naturally elicits a certain desired response (the unconditioned response, UCR)
o After repeated trials, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) and evokes
the same/similar response… now called the conditioned response (CR)
o Discovered by Pavlov and is one form of learning
In the experiment, b/c the meat powder automatically elicits salivation w/o any prior learning, its
called the unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
o Response to the stimulus - the meat powder - was salivation - unconditioned response
o After the meat powder is presented many times w/ the ringing of a bell, the neutral stimulus
- sound of bell alone - conditioned stimulus (CS) produces the salivary response conditioned
response (CR)
Extinction - is what happens to the CR when the repeated soundings of the bell aren't later
followed w/ meat powder
o The CR gradually disappears
Little Albert experiment by Watson
o When the boy reached for the rat, the experimenter made a loud noise by striking a steel
bar behind the boy, causing him fright (UCR)
o After 5 experiences, the boy became frightened just at the sight of the rat (CR)… even when
the noise wasn't made
o The fear, which was previously assoc'd w/ the loud noise came to be by the previously
neutral stimulus - the white rat (now the CS)
The Little Albert experim suggests the possible assoc'n b/w classical conditioning and
the dvpt of certain emotional disorders, incl'ng phobias
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Classical conditioning is implicated in the dvpt of anx disorders
Operant Conditioning
B.F. Skinner introduced operant conditioning - the acquisition or elimination of a response, as a
function of the env'al contingencies of reward and punishment
o Operant conditioning applies to behav which operates on the env
Law of effect - a principle of learning, which holds that behav is acquired by virtue of its
Discriminative stimulus - external events which in effect tell an organism… that if it performs a
certain behav, a certain consequence will follow
Positive reinforcement - the strengthening of a tendency to behave in a certain situation by
presenting a desired reward following previous responses in that situations
o e.g., a water-deprived pigeon will repeat behav's (operants) which are followed by the
availability of water
Negative reinforcement - strengthens a response thru the removal of an aversive event (e.g.,
stopping of electric shocks)
Skinner believed that freedom is choice is a myth and that all behav's occur due to the reinforcers
prov'd w/i the env
We all learn by watching/imitating others, a process called vicarious [experienced thru someone
else] learning or modelling
o Bandura has shown that watching others perform certain activities can incr or decr many
kinds of behav
e.g., when kids watched a model do many activities w/ a dog, these were more willing
to approach + handle the dog
Albert Bandura: The World's Greatest Living Psychologist?
Bandura believed that there were 4 key processes in observational learning
1. Attention (noticing the model's behav)
2. Retention (remembering the model's behav)
3. Reproduction (personally exhibiting the behav)
4. Motivation (repeated imitated behav's if they received positive conseq's)
As a part of Bandura's cognitive self-regulation theory (AKA: social cogn theory), is the concept of
human agency and self-efficacy - an indiv's perceived sense of being capable
o Self-regulation inv's:
Self-observation, self-judgment by comparing personal achievem's + behav's w/ std's
and goals, and self-response in the form of self-reinforcement and praise… or self-
punishment and criticism
Behaviour Therapy
Behaviour therapy - a branch of psychotherapy which focuses on the application of classical +
operant conditioning to alter clinical problems
Behaviour modification - applied experimental psych in a clinical context
Counterconditioning and exposure
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