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Chapter 2.1 - 2.2

PSYB32H3 Chapter 2.1 - 2.2: PSYB32H3 Chapter 2.1 - 2.: PSYB32H3 Chapter 2.1 - 2: PSYB32H3 Chapter 2.1 - : PSYB32H3 Chapter 2.1 -: PSYB32H3 Chapter 2.1 : PSYB32H3 Chapter 2.1: PSYB32H3 Chapter 2.: 2.1 and 2.2

Course Code
Konstantine Zakzanis
2.1 - 2.2

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Chapter 2 - Current Paradigms and Integrative
Learning Objectives
1. Explain what a paradigm is and the role of paradigms.
2. Describe the biological paradigm and how it is studied.
3. List the key assumptions of the cognitive-behavioural paradigm.
4. Describe the psychoanalytic paradigm and why its still relevant.
5. Describe the humanistic paradigm and its treatment implications.
6. Describe the major types of money market securities.
7. Explain the M1 and M2 definitions of the money supply.
8. Explain the possible relationships b/w money supply and economic activity.
9. Describe dvpts in the international monetary system.
2.1 The Role of Paradigms
Paradigm - the conceptual framework or approach w/i which the scientist works
o A paradigm is a set of basic assumptions which outline the particular universe of scientific
o It has huge implications for how scientists operate
o Paradigms specify what problems scientists will investigate and how they will go about the
o Paradigms serve the rules in science which r meant to be followed
2.2 The Biological Paradigm
Biological paradigm - a broad theoretical view which believes that mental disorders r caused by
some unusual somatic process or defect
o AKA: medical model OR disease model
o The biological paradigm is a continuation of the somatogenic hypothesis
Genes - the carriers of genetic info (DNA)
o Passed from parents to child
Behaviour genetics - is the study of indiv'al differences in behav which are attributable partly due
to differences in genetic makeup
Genotype - the total genetic makeup of an indiv'al, consisting of inherited genes is called a
person's genotype
o A person's genotype is his/her unobservable genetic makeup
o A person's genotype is fixed at birth
Phenotype - is the totality of a person's observable, behav'al characteristics - such as level of
o A person's phenotype changes over time and is seen as the product of interaction b/w the
genotype and the env
e.g., a person may be born w/ the capacity of high intellectual achievement, but
whether he/she is able to dvp this genetic ability depends on their env, education and
Thus, any meas of intelligence is viewed by a person's phenotype
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Many clinical disorders r of the phenotype, not the genotype. A person may have the
genotype of a disorder (say anx disorder or schizophrenia) inherited but whether the
genotype will engage in phenotypic behav depends on the person's env and
experience. A predisposition (AKA: diathesis) may be inherited, but the disorder itself
The study of behav genetics relies on 4 methods to uncover if the predisposition for a
psychopathology is inherited:
o Comparison of members of a family
o Comparison of pairs of twins
o The investigation of adoptees
o Linkage analysis
Family method - can be used to study a genetic predisposition among family members b/c the avg
genes shared by bl relatives is known
o Children get a random 1/2 of genes from one parent and the other 1/2 from the other…
thus siblings and parents and their children are identical in 50% of their genetic makeup
o Ppl who share 50% of their genes w/ a given indiv'al are called first-degree relatives of that
o Nephews and nieces share 25% of the genetic makeup of an uncle/aunt and are called
second-degree relatives
Index cases (AKA: probands) - the person in a genetic investigation who bears the diagnosis or
trait in which the investigator is interested in
Twin method - research method in behav genetics where concordance rates of monozygotic and
dizygotic twins are compared
o Concordance: as applied in behav genetics, is the similarity in psychiatric diagnosis or in
other traits w/i a pair of twins
Monozygotic (MZ) twins - genetically identical siblings who have dvpd from 1 fertilized egg
o AKA: identical twins
Dizygotic (DZ) twins - birth partners who have dvpd from separate fertilized eggs and who are
only 50% alike genetically (no more than siblings from diff pregnancies)
o AKA: fraternal twins
Concordance - as applied in behav genetics, is the similarity in psychiatric diagnosis or in other
traits w/i a pair of twins
o The predisposition for a mental disorder is higher in genetically identical MZ twins as in DZ
o b/c the MZ concordance rate is higher than the DZ rate, the characteristic being studied is
said to be heritable
Adoptees method - research method which studies children who were adopted and reared
completely apart from their disordered parents - thus eliminating the infl of being reared by
disordered parents
o The adoptees method helps in eliminating the effects of being raised by disordered parents
Each cell has 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) w/ 1000s of genes per chromosome
o One of each pair comes from a person's mother and father
An allele is any one several DNA codings which occupy the same
Linkage analysis - a technique in genetic research, whereby occurrence of a disorder in a family is
evaluated alongside a known genetic marker
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