PSYB32H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Neuroticism, Etiology, Eye Movement Desensitization And Reprocessing

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11 Nov 2011
Symptoms of the anxiety disorder are not completely disorder specific.
Etiological factors that give rise to anxiety disorders are applicable to other disorders
Comorbidity among anxiety disorders happens fr 2 reasons -
Anxiety disroders the most common
Early age of onset ----> durring childhood
Higher prevalance in wmen (16%) than men (9%) and women agd 15 - 24 years old
People with anxiety disorders were less likely to seak help than people with mood disorders
Show similarities at the phenotypic and genotypic level
Studies found that social phobia was a major predictor of depression
Strongest comorbitity is with depression
Person experiences intense ditress and occupational impairment.
Phobia = disrupting, fear mediated, avoidance that is out of proportion to danger that is actually posed.
High in prevalence ----> life time prvlence in US almost 1 in 10
Eg. China = fear of losing body heat
Eg. Japan = extreme fears of embarrasing others
Specific fear focused in a phobia can vary cross culturally
Can be generalzed( fear of many interpersonall relations) or specific (fear of a specific relation -
speaking in public) depending on situation.
People with general = have earlier onset, more comorbidity and alcohol abuse
Onset is usually adolescent - 13 yo average
Students with it had lower self esteem and distorted body image
Social Phobias - persistant irrational fear linked to presence of other people
Via classical conditioning = person learns to fear neutral stim. If its paired with a
painful/scary event
Person reduces the conditioned fear by escaping frm the conditioned stimulus ---->
operant conditioning b/c response maintained by the reinforcing event which the
reduction of fear
Phobias decvelope frm 2 sets of learning
Avoidance conditioning -
Explanation of phobias that are not aquired through past traumatic experiences
Person learns to fear through the imitation of response of others ----> VACARIOUS
Can be learned throughverbal intruction -----> child fearing an activity after parent has
warned against orbad things are gonna happen
Certain stimuli (prepared stimuli) are more likely to be classicly conditioned
Monkeys will only be afraid of tapes with crocadiles and snakes (relative to floweres and
rabbits) ------> some fears will classicaly condition to stimuli that th body is physiologicaly
prepared to be sensitive to.
Prepared learning
Behavioural theories - phobias aquired through learning
Chapter 6 - Anxiety disorders
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prepared to be sensitive to.
Why do people who do have traumatic experience don’t develop a phobia
Cognitive diathisis = tendancyt o believe that the same thing (traumatic exoerience) is gonna
happen in the future.
Diathesis is needed -
Person hasn’t learned to behave as such that they feal comfortable with others
Lack of interpersonal skills in an adult can be significant in plannig therupeutic interventions.
How peoples thought processes can serve as diathesis and how they maintain a phobia
Anxiety = attend to - stimuli, ambiguouse info is seen threatening, negative events are more likely
to occure than posotive.
More concerned about evaluations of others ----> view them selves negetively even though they
did fine
They areworried about causing discomfort to other people
Focus on negative social info and interpret others as negative
Perfectionist standards for social performances
High degree of public self conciousness
Cognitive behavioural theories link social phobias with
People recall events as having a negative
Students who are socially anxiouse also do post event processing f the negative experience
Cognitive Theories
Explains why some people acquire fears when others don’t.
Those who do have a predispositon to developing a phobia following a stressfull event.
People differ in their reaction to the envirenment is the ease at which the ANS becomes
May be gebetically determined - heredity has a role in phobias
JUMPY people = ANS becomes more aroused by stimuli. ----> AUTONOMIC LABILITY
Autonomic Nervouse system -
Blood and injection phovia runs in the family
64% with phobia have a first degree family member with the same thing.
In addition to gentic predisposition ----> close family members have a lot of oppurtunities to
observe each other behaviour
Genetic complexity - disroders reflect interactive and additive forces of many loci
Phenootipic complexity - transcends the DSM categories.
Problems -
Genetic Factors
Predesposing biological factors
Freud = phobias are defence mechanisms against anxiety produced by the id impulses.
Anxiety frm the id impulse is moved to an object or situation -----> way of dealing with repressed
Psychoanalytic Theories -
Therapies for Phobias
Systemc desensatization was the first treatment to be used
Person imagines anxiuse situations while being deeply relaxed -----> reduces anxiety.
Considerd superior to imagining the situation
BUT did see a high drop out rate
Some clinicians use real life situations = IN VIVO EXPOSURE
Just as effective as in vivo exposure
CBT thearapist encourage role playing
Can use modelling ----> other people interacting normally with the feared situation
FLOODING - person exposed to feared object in
Learning social skills can help people with social phobia
Operant techniques = overt avoidance of phobic object and approach behaviour that must replace
Behavioural approaches -
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Intensive and lasts many hours
Ost's one - session exposure treatment to phobias -
Clients trained to appraise peoples reactions to them
Also rely less on approval of others
People with socail phobias benefit frm treatments by Beck and Ellis
"homeowrk" or btwn seesion learning is essential to recovery.
CBT more beneficial than drugs or exposure to phobic object or applied relaxation
Cognitive approaches -
Framwork contains sasual & maintaining factors hat are outlined ina simple framwork.
Contact with the phobic object occurs through person behaviour (entering a mall) ----->
xposure based intervention increases this
Approach behaviour
Feared stimuli brought frm external objects/situations (the perception that someones
watching you)
Stimulus -
People attend to threatnening stimuli
Hypervigalence to stimulus -
Perception of threat or ganger (not the feared stimulus) ----> elicits anxiety
Fixed throuhg cognitive restructuring.
Perception of Danger
Persuasive personnality dimensiont hat predisposes people to experience negative affective
Neuroticism -
Stimuli can become threatening through direct experience, observation, and verbal
Information or experience -
Anxiety experienced through physical cognitive, and behavioural symptoms ----> managed
by relaxation and controllled breathing techniques
Increased anxiety
Influences the preception of danger and inhibits anxiety reducing behaviours
Reduced self - efficacy-
Choice of anxiety reducing behaviour depends on nature of stimuli
Dicouraged by therapists
Anxiety reducing behaviour -
Stimuli that indicate that an aversive outcome is less likely (knowledge of the location of the
nearest toilet)
Safety signals
Anxiety reducing behavioures and safety signals decrease anxiety therefore inforcing their
Reduced anxiety -
Arousal symptoms that accompany danger perception are an aversive experience
Punishment of approach behaviours
Cognitive behavioural case formulation
Drugs that reduce anxiety = sedatives, tranquilizers, or anxiolytics
Are very addictive therefore replaced by propanediols and benzodiazepines (is addictive and
cause severe withdrawl syndroms
Barbiturates are the forst class of drugs used to treat these disorders.
Valium and Xanax are still used today
MAO reuptake inhibitors
Can lead to weight gain, insomnia, sexual dysfuntion, and hypertension
Drugs originally made to treatdepression are used in treating anxiety disorders.
Biological approaches -
Attempt to uncover the repressed conflicts behind phobias
Phobia is considered to be a symptom of the underlying causes and is not dealt with directly.
Phobias are still encouraged to be confronted
Psychoanalytical approches
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