PSYB32H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Connectionism, Memory Span, Long-Term Memory

32 views8 pages
14 Nov 2011
School
Department
Course
CHAPTER 9 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: THE INFORMATION- PROCESSING
APPROACH
INFORMATION PROCESSING THORY
-the human cognition system is like a computer
-primary quality is its flexibility
-two main limitations are the amount of information that it can possess at one time and
the speed with which is processes this information
-vast problem solving potential
Basic Assumptions of the Information- Processing Model
-first, thinking is information processing
-second, assumption that there are mechanisms or processes of change that underlie the
processing of information
-assumes that cognitive development is a self- modifying process; that the child uses
strategies she has acquired from earlier problem solutions to modify her responses to a
new problem
-assumption that careful task analysis is crucial; that the task itself influences the child’s
own level of development
-error analysis: attending to errors made
-analysis on this is called microgenetic analysis: a very detailed examination of how a
child solves a problem
Information- Processing Models
The Multi-Store Model
-describes how information enters and flows through the mind as it is processed
-many steps; helpful diagram on page 342 fig. 9.1
-first get input from environment
-then goes to sensory register: info is stored in original form but very briefly; 1 second,
doesn’t change over development
-then goes to short term (working) memory: info in the sensory is transformed (or
encoded) into a mental representation and placed in here; without effort info is lost within
30 sec; can use rehearsal to keep it longer
-then goes to long term memory: knowledge that is retained for a long period of time; in
there for an indefinite period of time
Connectionist Models
-describes mental processes in terms of the interconnections of the neural network
-parallel distributed processing
-interested in how these neural connections are organized, how they change over the
course of development and how different connections are activated as the child thinks
and solves problems
Neo- Piagetian Information- Processing Models
-attempt to integrate Piaget’s ideas with that of an information- processing perspective
-Robbie Case divides development into 4 stages
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
-each stage entails an executive control structure: mental blueprint or plan for solving a
class of problems
-has three components: representation of the problem, representation of the goal
of the problem, and representation of a strategy for attaining the goal
-four stages listed on page 344 table 9.1
Cognitive Processes: What are They? How Do They Contribute to Development?
Encoding and Representation
-we only encode (or change into mental representations) if the info we take in is relevant
-mental representation: term used to describe information that is stored mentally in some
form; it depends on the child’s understanding that one thing can stand for or “represent”
something else
-representation called a script: reflects a particular event or series of events that are based
on common experiences of daily life; used to understand new events and to generate
predictions about how those events will unfold
Strategies
-are conscious cognitive or behavioural activities that are used to enhance mental
performance
-main purpose of strategy is to decrease the load on the child’s information- processing
system by increasing the efficiency of each process and thus freeing up time for tasks
necessary for solving the problem
Automatization
-involves making behaviours that once were conscious and controlled in to unconscious
and automatic ones
-like learning to drive standard or riding a bike
Generalization
-the application of a strategy learned while solving a problem in one situation to a similar
problem in a new situation
The Roles of the Executive Control Process and the Knowledge Base in Information
Processing
-the executive control process guides the child in the selection and use of such strategies
that are most effective for the task at hand
-the child’s knowledge base plays a large part in their ability to process information and
solve problems
-in the chess players experiment, it was found that young chess players recalled more
chess-piece moves than adults, and they needed less trials than adults to reach perfect
recall
DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN SOME SIGNIFICANT COGNITIVE ABILITIES
-consider the abilities linked to information- processing approach; all discussed below
1)Attention
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
-identification and selection of particular sensory input for more detailed processing
-hard to control their attention when they are young
Control of Attention
-children as young as 42 months (3 ½ years) may be less distractible when an activity
fully engages their attention
-distraction can sometimes facilitate children’s performance
-turning points table pg 349 summarizes
Learning to Attend to What Is Relevant
-to learn, child must learn the strategy of selective attention, ignoring irrelevant features
in the environment
-processing of irrelevant information increases slightly until 11/12 then declines
-overall children show increasing efficiency in how they use attention in processing
information
Attention and Planning
-older children have better attentional skills because they develop a plan of action to
guide their attention as they solve problems
-planning
-study by Elaine Vurpillot; choosing which houses are identical (different pictures in the
windows); found that younger children looked randomly at the windows and made
judgments without even looking at windows that were different
-planning is often done in social situations
-learning about the thinking of another appears to enhance the child’s own understanding
of the problem
2)Memory
-memory & knowledge are interchangeable
-short term (working) and long term
-semantic memory: factual info; like knowing about the history of a town
-episodic memory: memory for specific events; like your birthday; typically
autobiographical
-act of remembering can be intentional or non intentional
-usually nonintential; like already knowing how to speak when you open your mouth to
talk
-intentional memory, or explicit memory, require effort to store and retrieve
-rehearsal, organization, and elaboration all help
-three areas of memory that improve with development are listed below
1)Basic Capacities
-include the amount of info that can be held in working memory (memory span) etc
Memory Span
-memory span for numbers is about 8 for uni students, 6-7n for 12 year olds, and 4 for 5
year olds
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Notes+

Unlimited access to class notes and textbook notes.

YearlyBest Value
75% OFF
$8 USD/m
Monthly
$30 USD/m
You will be charged $96 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.