ones. 5. Assumes child plays passive roles, but they actually play active role in learning
Nativist View: Chomsky said kids born with innate mental structure that guides
acquisition of language and grammar. Language-acquisition device (LAD)- the mental
structure of the human nervous system that incorporates an innate concept of language.
Also found how grammar (subject-predicate relationship) and creating language from a
select few sounds was universal for all humans.
Critical period- $VSHFLILFSHULRGLQFKLOGUHQ¶VGHYHORSPHQt when they are sensitive to a
particular environmental stimulus that does not have the same effect on them when
encountered before or after this period. (for language this period is infancy-puberty)
People argue against this theory because language skills seems to decline with increasing
age not just a certain critical period. They concluded maybe a better learning
environment has to do with it. African grey parrot, dolphins, and primates seem to have
language abilities of 2 year old human (no use of prepositions/conjunctions though).
Nativist view also has problems: 1. Many different theories on types of grammar rules. 2.
Language is more gradual, not as quick as nativists predict. 3. This view makes it hard to
consider all WKHGLIIHUHQWZRUOGODQJXDJHV'RHVQ¶WJLYHVRFLDOFRQWH[WDQ\UHFRJQLWLRQ
5. Universal empirical studies show that adult child interactions play big role in pacing of
Interactionist view: Social contexts and learning is important but so LVDFKLOG¶VLQQDWH
ability to develop languages, formulating hypotheses to reach goals. They believe its all
about the balance between parent and child understanding.
Language-acquisition support system (LASS)- According to Jerome Bruner, a collection
of strategies and tactics that environmental influences-LQLWLDOO\DFKLOG¶VSDUHQWVRU
primary caregivers-provide the language learning child. Parents basically facilitate the
learning of the child in these ways:
Playing Non-Verbal Games- peekaboo/pat-a-cake, teaches kids about turn taking
Using Simplified Speech- parents use Infant/child-directed speech: A simplified style
of speech parents use with young children, in which sentences are short, simple, and
often repetitive; the speaker enunciates especially clearly, slowly, and in a higher pitched
voice and often ends with a rising intonation. This style of speech is also called
Motherese. Teaches segmentation of speech into sentences and words.
Expansion: A technique adults use in speaking to kids in which they imitate and expand
RUDGGWRDFKLOG¶VVWDWHPHQW (middle class use this a lot, low-income fams not so much.)
incomplete sentence in a more complex grammatical form. (When a kid says something
wrong like Kitty Eat, replying with What does the Kitty Eat?, to show proper grammar
and make it more complex at the same time.)