Classification and diagnosis: diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: dsm iv. The brief history of classification: people realized different illnesses required different treatments, there was a lot of diversity of classification in the end of the 19th century. The diagnostic system of the american psychiatric association (dsm-iv and dsm-iv-tr) It can"t be an expectable and culturally sanctioned response to an event (like death of a loved one) It can"t be deviant behaviour nor conflicts that are primarily between the individual and society. Intellectual, emotional and physical disorders usually begin in infancy, childhood or adolescence: separation anxiety, conduct disorder (violate social norms repeatedly), Adhd, mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorders (problems in acquiring communication skills and deficits in relating to other people), and learning disorders (speech, reading, arithmetic, and writing skills: substance-related disorders: ingesting some substance that impairs social or occupational functioning. They may not be able to stop ingestion and have withdrawal symptoms.