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Chapter 11

CH.11 Family.docx


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Mark Phortney
Chapter
11

Page:
of 6
CH.11 The family
- Parents play a crucial role in socialization
- Socialization the process by which parents and others ensure that a child’s standards of
behaviour, attitudes, skills, and motives conform closely to those deemed appropriate to her
role in society
- Socialization of gender begins at birth blue wrap boys and pink wrap girls
- The family system is processes of mutual shaping that is parents influence and direct their
children but their children also influence them and play an active role in their own socialization
- Families do not function in isolation; they are influenced by the larger physical, cultural, social
and historical setting and events around them
- Families are not static they change over time, members of the family are constantly changing
- The family s viewed as an interdependent system that functions as a whole has 2 principle
origins 1. To change the beh of a troubled child, one usually must change the family system as
well and 2. Bronfenbreber’s ecological theory
- Dynamic systems theory is a complex and organized system, that it has an indenity of its own
and although it maintains a certain stability over time it must be also capable of morphogenesis
(adapting to changes) and a system that demonstrates equifinality
- Interdependency explains why the functioning of a family is not always smooth because
each family member and family subsystem
- Families tend to attain equilibrium or homeostasis In their functioning and to become resistant
to forces that might alter this balance
- Families have boundaries that vary in how permeable or vulnerable they are outside influences
allow members to maintain satisfying relationships both within and outside the family
The marital system
- Both partners in a marriage, committed agreements, civil unions or cohabitation make up the
marital system
- When parents offer each other comfort and support they are more likely to provide the same
for their children
- Study has shown that the amount of shared parenting engaged in couples predicted their
marital satisfaction, parental competence and closeness to children
- Conflict b/w parents has a negative impact on both the children and parents reflecting insecure
attachment
- Studying school age children found that not only the level of conflict but also the way adult
partners manage their conflict can have harmful effects on children
- The effect of marital conflict on children can take two of one pathways direct or indirect
- Children may be affected by such conflict indirectly when marital difficulties cause parents to
change their child-rearing practices
- Research shows that parents in conflicting marriages had a poor parenting style (cold,
unresponsive and angry)
- Children can also be effected directly when they are actual witnesses to arguments and fights
- For example, in a study parents (2 actors) disagreed about what movie to watch, the more
frequent and violent the conflict the more often the arguments were about the child doing
something thus the child showed more distress, shame and self blame
- Boys are more susceptible to the negative effects of family disharmony as they are more
directly exposed to parental bickering and conflict
- In response to parents conflict, boys tend to display more externalizing or aggressive and anti
social behaviour and girls tend to show more internalized or shy and withdrawn behaviour
- Marital satisfaction declines among mothers first than fathers after the birth of a child as the
mother has to quit her job and invest more time with her child
- Attachment b.w parent and infant forms the foundation of later relationships
- Although socialization begins at birth it become richer as the child begins to communicate and
mobilize
- Reinforcement when parents explain acceptable standards of behaviour and then praise their
children according to whether they conform or violate
- Modeling observational learning that happens by chance
- Dimensions of parenting: 1. Emotionality parents may be warm, responsive and child
centered vs. rejecting, unresponsive and uninvolved 2. Control parents may be very
demanding of their children, restricting their behaviour or they may be permissive and
undemanding allowing the child to do whatever he/she wants
- Emotionality warm parenting child is likely to maintain the parents approval
- Loving parents make children feel good about themselves, dispelling anxiety and building their
sense of security and their self esteem
- Control the goal of socialization is to enable the child to regulate her own behaviour and to
- Choose socially responsible alternatives 2 types of controls 1. Behavioral and 2. Psychological
control
- Behavioral control involves setting reasonable rules and parental use of suggestions, reasoning,
and possible alternatives as well as monitoring their children
- When moderate levels of behavioral control are used, children are more likely to cooperate and
to adopt or internalize their parents standards
- Psychological control involves the use of emotion directed tactics such as guilt, or shame
induction, withdrawal of love or affection this type of control often leads to lower self esteem,
higher anxiety and depression
- As the child gains in social cognitive competence and becomes more autonomous, parents rely
on reasoning and the child engages more in active bargaining
Parenting Style
- Authoritive parenting parenting that is warm, responsive, and involved yet unintrusive, and in
which parents set reasonable limits and expect appropriately mature beh from their children
- Authoritive parenting continued to be associated w. positive outcomes for adolescence
- Authoritarian parenting parenting that is harsh, unresponsive and rigid and in which parents
tend to use power assertive methods of control
- Authoritarian parenting has negative long-term outcomes for boys more than girls boys show
low cognitive and social competence
- Their academic and intellectual performance was poor and they were unfriendly
- Permissive parenting parenting that is lax and in which parents exercise inconsistent discipline
and encourage children to express their impulses freely
- Uninvolved parenting parenting that is indifferent and neglectful and in which parents focus
on their own needs rather than on their children’s needs
- This parenting pattern in sometimes found in mothers who are depressed and in people who
are under stress
Challenges to the parenting styles
- Some researchers have suggested that we need to identify more clearly the components of each
style that contribute to its relative effectiveness or ineffectiveness in respect to the child
development
- Second, some authorities propose giving greater attention to how much the child’s
temperament and behaviour influence the parent’s style
- Recent work has raised questions about the generalizability
- Neighborhoods can make a difference in children’s development
- Poor minority parents who used more authoritarian child rearing practices esp those who lived
in dangerous environments has better adjusted children than those that relied on authoritative
practices
- The more socially integrated the parents the more vigilant they may be about their children’s
behaviour
The Co-Parenting System
- Co-Parenting parenting in which spouses work together as a team, coordinating their child
rearing practices with each other; co-parenting can be cooperative, hostile or characterized by
different levels of investment in the parenting task
- Gatekeeping is one form of co-parenting in which one parent limits or controls the other
parent’s level of participation
- Mahale’s research found that hostile competitive co-parenting during infancy was related to
aggression in children. When there was large discrepancies b/w the input of each parent,
parents rated children has displaying anxiety
- Other researchers have found links b/w problematic family alliances in the first year and
insecure mother child attachment and in the preschool years
The sibling system
- Most children spend more time in direct interaction with their siblings than with their siblings
than with their parents or other significant people in lives
- Sibling interactions provide opportunities for learning about positive and negative behaviours
and increases emotional intensity